Serum HOTAIR as a novel diagnostic biomarker for esophageal squamous cellcarcinoma. Briefly, total RNA was extracted from 6 ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues using the Trizol reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). Mitotic centromere-associated kinesin is a novel marker for prognosis and lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer. (C) The relative mRNA expression of PBK, KIF2C, NUF2, KIF20A, RAD51AP1 and DEPDC1 were confirmed by qPCR (n=6). Infiltration of dendritic cells was significantly negatively correlated with PBK (R= -0.343, P= 2.42e-06), KIF2C (R= -0.182, P= 1.47e-02), NUF2 (R= -0.25, P= 7.15e-04), RAD51AP1 (R= -0.193, P= 9.4e-03), and DEPDC1 (R= -0.234, P= 1.55e-03) expression levels. In recent years, as high-throughput microarray platforms have been widely used in medical research, a large number of high-throughput data available in many databases, and re-analysis of these data has become an effective and low-cost method to discover biomarkers for many diseases. For TCGA datasets, we found 1383 downregulated and 1268 upregulated genes (Table 1). thismailbody4 = thismailbody4 + "4;"; To better understand the function of these genes (PBK, KIF2C, NUF2, KIF20A, RAD51AP1, DEPDC1), the relationship between their expression and immune infiltration was performed. 2005 Songhu Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, China. PBK is a serine-threonine kinase that was reported upregulated in breast cancer, and server as a therapy target for breast cancer [22]. 2017;9:129, 9. Esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) is considered as an immediate precancerous lesion of ESCC. Notably, all of them could be independent diagnostic and prognostic indicators for ESCC. 2019;9:262, 46. The results showed that the mRNA expression levels of hub genes (PBK, KIF2C, NUF2, KIF20A, RAD51AP1 and DEPDC1) in tumor samples (EAC, ESCC) were significantly higher than in normal samples (P < 0.05) (Fig. In addition, the scRNA-seq analysis showed that the hub genes were mainly expressed on carcinoma cells, indicating that the identified differentially expressed genes were caused by cancer cells (Fig. Cancer Manag Res. var thismailbody1 = ""; thismailbody3 = thismailbody3+"2e;"; The specificity and sensitivity of miR-146a for diagnosis of ESCC were 68.6% and 85.7% [49]. pROC: an open-source package for R and S+ to analyze and compare ROC curves. Bioinformatics. hNuf2 inhibition blocks stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment and induces mitotic cell death in HeLa cells. Our results indicate that these genes may also be potential targets for ESCC therapy. 2002;159(4):549-555, 30. Validation of miRNA prognostic power in hepatocellular carcinoma using expression data of independent datasets. TIMER: A Web Server for Comprehensive Analysis of Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells. Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common skin lesion often defined as premalignant with more evidence indicating it as early stage of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). (B) ROC analysis of hub genes in ESCC. Six patients with ESCC who underwent surgical resection of tumor tissues without any treatment were enrolled for qPCR assay. 6B). More importantly, most previous studies were mainly depended on one or two datasets, while individual dataset often can be unreliable due to bias introduced by sample processing and insufficient samples [10]. 2018;39(3):407-417, 42. Moreover, KIF20A was also reported as a prognostic indicator for cervical squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian clear‑cell carcinoma, and glioma [37-39]. Kulasingam V, Diamandis EP. Fig. High Expression of KIF20A Is Associated with Poor Overall Survival and Tumor Progression in Early-Stage Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Ishikawa K, Kamohara Y, Tanaka F. et al. The aim of the study was to identify novel biomarkers for ESCC. 2013;8(4):e62752, 45. As the predominant subtype of esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) comprises over 90% of all esophageal cancer cases in parts of Asia [2]. var thismailbody11 = ""; 2018 Jun;47(6):699-707. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2017.09.016. Oncogene. Correlation of hub genes expression levels with immune infiltration of B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and dendritic cell in ESCC. Our results highlight that saliva liquid biopsy has several promising clinical uses in OSCC management; it is painless, accessible, and low cost and represents a very helpful source of diagnostic and prognostic biomarker detection. 59 110–118. 2011;12(1):77-70, 18. To evaluate the prognostic significance of identified hub genes, a Kaplan Meier survival analysis was carried out using Kaplan Meier-plotter ( [16]. The TIMER database incorporates 32 cancer types and six immune cell types (B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and dendritic cell). Yamashita J, Fukushima S, Jinnin M. et al. The aim of the study was to identify novel biomarkers for ESCC. Bie L, Zhao G, Wang YP, Zhang B. Kinesin family member 2C (KIF2C/MCAK) is a novel marker for prognosis in human gliomas. Introduction. Clinic parameters of enrolled patients in scRNA-seq dataset. (A) PBK. Yukinaga M, Kenichi K, Tomoko N. et al. Aerodigestive squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) constitute a major source of global cancer deaths. Then, the following cycling conditions were applied: 95°C for 5 minutes, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 10 seconds and 62°C for 30 seconds. STRING (https://string‐ was used for Gene ontology (GO), pathway enrichment and protein‑protein interaction (PPI) analysis [14]. GAPDH served as an internal control to normalize the expression. miR-105 Promotes the Progression and Predicts the Prognosis for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). Saliva is a noninvasive biofluid that can contain metabolite signatures of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Four pairs of tumor and adjacent normal tissues were collected from OSCC patients, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened via high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Upregulated RAD51AP1 has been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in ovarian and lung cancers [41, 42]. So far, a great number of potential biomarkers have been identified. Salivary extracellular vesicle-associated miRNAs as potential biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Overlap between DEGs across different ESCC datasets. We found that all hub genes mRNA expression levels were significantly elevated in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.05) (Fig. 3A). Clinical characteristics of the enrolled patients in TCGA, Clinic parameters of enrolled patients in the current study for qPCR assay. The detailed clinical characteristics of the enrolled patients in TCGA are shown in Table 2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity, and it is especially significant in Asian countries. Cell 116 281–297. The upregulated genes were mainly involved in positive regulation of cellular process, the mitotic cell cycle and collagen metabolic processes. For GEO datasets, each set of DEGs was screened separately. Nucleic Acids Res. Conclusion. National Library of Medicine Introduction. Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Discovers Dysregulated Metabolic Pathways and Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers Zi-Jia Zhu 1,2,*, Zheng Qi 3,*, Ji Zhang 1,2, Wen-Hua Xue 1,2, Li-Feng Li 4, Zhi-Bo Shen 4, Ze-Yun Li … et al. Zou JX, Duan Z, Wang J. et al. PBK/TOPK Expression Predicts Prognosis in Oral Cancer. BMC Syst Biol. Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.2. To explore the function of the common DEGs, GO, pathway enrichment and PPI analysis were conducted using the STRING database. Recent next generation sequencer (NGS) studies have found that isoforms of micro RNA (isomiR) circulate in the bloodstream similarly to mature micro RNA (miR). As for pathway enrichment, muscle contraction, ion homeostasis and rho GTPases activation was enriched (Fig. Kinesin Family Deregulation Coordinated by Bromodomain Protein ANCCA and Histone Methyltransferase MLL for Breast Cancer Cell Growth, Survival, and Tamoxifen Resistance. KIF20A expression as a prognostic indicator and its possible involvement in the proliferation of ovarian clearcell carcinoma cells. Salivary Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis and Follow-Up: Current Status and Perspectives Marta Cristaldi 1 , Rodolfo Mauceri 1,2 , Olga Di Fede 1 , Giovanna Giuliana 1 , Giuseppina Campisi 1* and Vera Panzarella 1 Lancet. 2016;114(3):290-7, 50. Therefore, high expression of RAD51AP1 may be implicated in ESCC development. Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer type in the world, and 90% of it is represented by oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (C) Venn diagram displaying the overlap between DEGs from the GEO and TCGA datasets. Br J Cancer. thismailbody1 = thismailbody12+"n&"+"#x"; However, the role of NUF2 in ESCC still unknown. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. (B) GSE20347. 2014;15(1):293, 14. Further immune infiltration analysis showed that infiltration of dendritic cells was significantly negatively correlated with PBK, KIF2C, NUF2, RAD51AP1, and DEPDC1 expression levels. Cancer Cell Int. 2007;18(8):2970-2979, 26. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of the succinate-related pathway as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in HNSCC. 2015;8(3):2638-2648, 33. To achieve this, it is important to efficiently and accurately screen out specific biomarkers from among the huge number of molecules. Extracellular miRNAs as biomarkers in cancer. BMC Cancer. A seven-lncRNA signature predicts overall survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Despite progress in preventive and therapeutic strategies, delay in OSCC diagnosis remains one of the major causes of high morbidity and mortality; indeed the majority of OSCC has been lately identified in the advanced clinical stage (i.e., III or IV). 2007;26(44):6448-6455, 44. Chin J Cancer. 8600 Rockville Pike -, Bartel D. P. (2004). Many studies have identified various biomarkers for ESCC based on TCGA and GEO databases [3-9]. Pennathur A, Gibson MK, Jobe BA, Luketich JD. Public Heal. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals diverse intratumoral heterogeneities and gene signatures of two types of esophageal cancers. 4A). Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9227, 17. Results and Discussion. Li CY, Zhang WW, Xiang JL, Wang XH, Wang JL, Li J. //--> This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. thismailbody1 = thismailbody12+"3&"+"#x"; Appl. Br J Cancer. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is a comprehensive repository of high-throughput experimental data in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) which is one of the world's largest database of biochips. 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00077 et al. Cellular component analysis of the downregulated genes showed association with contractile fibers, myofibrils, and intercalated discs. 5B). Prevention and treatment information (HHS). (A) Expression levels of PBK, KIF2C, NUF2, KIF20A, RAD51AP1 and DEPDC1 in UALCAN database. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify more effective biomarkers for ESCC, which will increase the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment, and even improve our understanding of the pathogenesis mechanisms. The non‑coding RNA profile GSE43732, generated from 238 paired frozen tissues from 119 patients, was analyzed. thismailbody4 = thismailbody4 + ""; Nakamura Y, Tanaka F, Haraguchi N. et al. -. Anticancer Res. The PPI information was downloaded and imputed into Cytoscape software (Cytoscape_v3.7.2) to construct a PPI network. 2016;11(12):e0167449, 39. (C) GSE234300. Ni H (1), Ni T (2), Feng J (3), Bian T (3), Liu Y (4), Zhang J (5). Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. 2015;43(7):e47, 13. 4. 2021 Feb 17;40(1):70. doi: 10.1186/s13046-021-01865-2. doi:10.7150/jca.50443, Liuhai Zheng1, Linzhi Li1, Jun Xie1, Hai Jin2 , Naishuo Zhu1. ESCC has a generally poor prognosis and there is a lack of available biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. 2014;15(24):10917-10922, 48. MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. BMC Bioinformatics. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is one of the most malignant tumors worldwide. We screened the overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) acquired from six Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) ESCC datasets and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ESCC datasets. (D) GSE100942. com; Naishuo Zhu, E-mail: nzhu Imai K, Hirata S, Irie A, Senju S, Nishimura Y. However, their expression had no obvious correlation with infiltration of other immune cells (B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, neutrophil, macrophage) (Fig. 2017;77(21):e108-e110, 21. We found 132 downregulated and 48 upregulated genes (Fig. Chandrashekar DS, Bashel B, Balasubramanya SAH, Creighton CJ, Varambally S. UALCAN: A Portal for Facilitating Tumor Subgroup Gene Expression and Survival Analyses. The STRING database in 2017: quality-controlled protein-protein association networks, made broadly accessible. Thus, the datasets for ESCC (GSE17351, GSE20347, GSE23400, GSE100942, GSE38129 and GSE77861) were downloaded from the GEO ( database by R ×64 3.6.0 with the “GEOquery” R package [11]. 2008;5(10):588-599, 11. Paired adjacent nontumor tissues from the proximal resection margins (>5 cm away from the ESCC sample) were also collected for RNA extraction and qPCR assay. Advances of Salivary Proteomics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) Detection: An Update. The details of these datasets are listed in Table 1. Talanta. CA Cancer J Clin. Park JH, Lin ML, Nishidate T, Nakamura Y, Katagiri T. PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (PBK/TOPK) as a molecular target for breast cancer therapy. Purpose of review: This review focuses on oral cancer disease mechanisms and discusses ongoing research to identify molecular signatures or biomarkers for oral cancer. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. E6 and E7 antibody levels are potential biomarkers of recurrence in patients with advanced-stage human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Our results revealed that low expression in ESCC is associated with worse outcomes, and NUF2 can efficiently distinguish tumor tissues from normal tissue (AUC= 99.2%), suggesting its diagnostic value for ESCC. Over the years, several tumor biomarkers have been suggested to foresee the prognosis oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. thismailbody3 = thismailbody1; thismailbody4 = thismailbody4 + "4;"; 2018;68(6):394-424, 2. Subsequently, protein-protein interaction network analysis was performed to identify the key hub genes. J Cell Mol Med. Pu W, Wang C, Chen S. et al. Author information: (1)a Department of Neurosurgery , The Forth Affiliated Hospital of Nantong Medical College , Yancheng , Jiangsu , China. OTSCC is increasing in incidence (Patel et al, … 6C). Next, an online tool (jvenn) was used to identify overlapping DEGs in at least two GEO datasets. These studies have promoted our understanding of the development of new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for ESCC. Kinesin Family Member 20A is a Novel Melanoma-associated Antigen. NUF2 is a component of a protein complex associated with the centromere that plays an important role in chromosome segregation [29]. Ki-67 Antigen. 98(Pt A), 66–72. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral cancer and has a poor prognosis. 2017;59:76-81, 41. The detailed clinic parameters of these participants are listed in Table 3. In addition, scRNA-seq results showed that the hub genes is mainly expressed on carcinoma cells, and qPCR results also indicated that the expression of the hub genes in tumor tissues is significantly higher than normal tissues. In the present study, we found that RAD51AP1 is an effective diagnostic biomarker for ESCC (AUC= 96.7%). 2016;36(12):6457-6466, 25. Wang C, Guan S, Liu F. et al. The ggplot2 package was used to display the DEGs identified from each dataset (Fig. Adams L, Roth MJ, Abnet CC. The AK may remain stable, transform towards incisive cSCC or in some cases revert spontaneously. Front. 2019;23(8):5751-5761, 8. Food Chem. Chudasama D, Bo V, Hall M, Anikin V, Karteris E. Identification of novel cancer biomarkers of prognostic value using specific gene regulatory networks (GRN): a novel role of RAD51AP1 for ovarian and lung cancers. The pathologic diagnosis of NSCLC subtypes, which include SqCLC, adenocarcinoma, and large-cell carcinoma, is a multistep process. Lee LT, Wong YK, Hsiao HY, Wang YW, Chan MY, Chang KW. Front Oncol. Oncogene. identified PDLIM2 as a novel prognostic predictor for ESCC, which also associated with nodal invasion. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. However, in clinical applications, the sensitivity and specificity of the combined index in the diagnosis of ESCC were only 50% and 68%, respectively [50]. Saliva liquid biopsy for point-of-care applications. miR-200b-3p in plasma is a potential diagnostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma. circulating tumor DNA; early diagnosis; extracellular vesicles; liquid biopsy; microRNAs; oral squamous cell carcinoma; prognosis; salivary biomarkers. 3B), which were used for identifying common DEGs within the TCGA data. Khongkow P, Gomes AR, Gong C. et al. In contrast, our study showed that low expression levels of KIF2C correlated with worse survival (HR=0.37, logrank P= 0.05). Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Ohashi T, Komatsu S, Ichikawa D. et al. Author information: (1)Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Department of Thoracic surgery, Sun yat-sen memorial hospital, Sun yat-sen University, NO.107 of … An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect … This study was designed to elucidate whether autoantibodies against STIP1 could be a diagnostic biomarker in ESCC. Sci. Gai C, Camussi F, Broccoletti R, Gambino A, Cabras M, Molinaro L, Carossa S, Camussi G, Arduino PG. Cancer Lett. Cancer Res. To obtain biological changes in gene expression in ESCC, all data were pre-processed. The results of scRNA-seq and qPCR indicated that the expression levels of hub genes in ESCC were significantly higher than in normal cells or tissues. ESCC is the predominant type of esophageal carcinoma worldwide. var thismailbody11 = ""; Li T, Fan J, Wang B. et al. (A) GO and pathway enrichment results for up-regulated DEGs. limma powers differential expression analyses for RNA-sequencing and microarray studies. TCGA-ESCC samples with RNA-seq data and matched clinical metadata (including 11 normal and 78 tumor samples) were downloaded from the GDC database ( Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 4C). Zhang W, He W, Shi Y. et al. Prognostic biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review. 30571650 and 31370927). BMC Bioinformatics. Neoplasia. ESCC patients with low expression levels of these genes generally have worse survival. We discovered that PBK, KIF2C, NUF2, KIF20A, RAD51AP1, DEPDC1 are possible diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for ESCC. Kanehira M, Harada Y, Takata R. et al. (D) KIF20A. A metabolomics study, using plasma from four groups including ESCC patients before, during, and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and healthy … Next, we used an online tool, jvenn ( to find overlapping DEGs in at least two of the GEO datasets [13]. Promoter methylation in cytology specimens as an early detection marker for esophageal squamous dysplasia and early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The results showed that all samples (GSE17351, GSE20347, GSE23400, GSE100942, GSE38129 and GSE77861) were clearly divided into normal and tumor groups, except for dataset GSE23400, where four normal samples (GSM573926, GSM573867, GSM573888 and GSM573889) and three tumor samples (GSM573926, GSM573935 and GSM573944) showed no difference between normal tissue and tumors; therefore, these were removed from further analyses (Fig. Flowchart for screening novel biomarkers in ESCC. 2016 17(7). Copyright © 2019 Cristaldi, Mauceri, Di Fede, Giuliana, Campisi and Panzarella. Bethesda, MD 20894. 1007 - 1013 Patients typically present with advanced, incurable disease, so new means of detecting early disease are a research priority. Previous studies have demonstrated that high KIF2C expression can serve as an independent marker of poor prognosis in several tumors, including glioma, colorectal cancer, and gastric cancer [26-28]. Our study revealed that KIF2C could be a useful diagnostic biomarker for ESCC (AUC= 98.8%). var thismailbody2 = ""; Targeted bisulfite sequencing identified a panel of DNA methylation-based biomarkers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC). Therefore, to eliminate technical errors, experimental confirmation is required. At present, there is no effective treatment strategy together with the lack of effective diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers, the 5-year survival rate of ESCC patients is less than 30% [2]. thismailbody3 = thismailbody1; The detailed clinical characteristics are shown in Table 4. Biomarkers, Tumor. 2008;1(5):357-61. J. Curr. et al. Ádám N, András L, Otília M, Balázs Gr. Subsequently, the PPI network information was imported into Cytoscape and the MCC method in cytoHubba was applied to screen hub genes. Lu JW, Tseng YS, Lo YS, Lin YM, Yeh CM, Lin SH. Then, Kaplan Meier survival and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis were utilized to clarify the diagnostic and prognostic role of these hub genes. A P‐value < 0.05 and |FC| > 2 were used as the threshold to identify DEGs. Clin Epigenetics. Paclitaxel targets FOXM1 to regulate KIF20A in mitotic catastrophe and breast cancer paclitaxel resistance. Menini M, De Giovanni E, Bagnasco F, Delucchi F, Pera F, Baldi D, Pesce P. J Pers Med. Recent decades have seen combination chemoradiotherapy become the standard treatment for anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Here, we present a systematic review to identify, evaluate and summarize the evidence for OSCC reported markers. Currently, these two databases are widely used for data mining due to their large sample size and complete clinical information. Oncol Rep. 2019;42(6):2583-2599, 6. var thismailbody3 = ""; The Discovery and Validation of Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma George Couch1, James E. Redman1, Lorenz Wernisch2, Richard Newton2, Shalini Malhotra3, Sanford M. Dawsey4, Pierre Lao-Sirieix1,and Rebecca C. Fitzgerald1 Abstract The 5-year survival rate of esophageal cancer is less than 10% Then, UALCAN database, scRNA-seq and qPCR were conducted to validate the expression levels of identified genes. DEPDC1 is a novel cancer-related gene that was reported to be overexpressed in many tumors including bladder cancer, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma [43-47], and is known to be a poor prognostic indicator for these tumors. var thismailbody4 = ""; In our present study, we found that PBK (area under the curve [AUC]= 96.5%), KIF2C (AUC= 98.8%), NUF2 (AUC= 99.2%), KIF20A (AUC= 99.2%), RAD51AP1 (AUC= 96.7%), and DEPDC1 (AUC= 98.6%) all with a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of ESCC. Acta Derm Venereol. Salivary Micro-RNA and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review. GO, pathways enrichment, and PPI of overlap DEGs in ESCC. Identification of DNA methylation-driven genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a study based on The Cancer Genome Atlas. Plos One. Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer type in the world, and 90% of it is represented by oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Despite progress in preventive and therapeutic strategies, delay in OSCC diagnosis remains one of the major causes of high morbidity and mortality; … As far as we know, there is no relevant research to verify the identified biomarkers at the single cell levels. 2021; 12(3):899-911. Genital squamous cell carcinoma is linked with p16 (in less aggressive form of vulvar SCC), p53 (weaker prognosis), cofilin-1, galectin-7 and weel. We hypothesized that combination of circulating miR and isomiRs detected by NGS are potentially powerful cancer biomarker. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is associated with disease and treatment-related morbidity so there is an urgent need for innovation in treatment and diagnosis practices. Moreover, silencing of RAD51AP1 can inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer [41, 42]. High Expression of DEPDC1 Promotes Malignant Phenotypes of Breast Cancer Cells and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients With Breast Cancer. 2017;49(05):388-399, 7. Toxicol. thismailbody12 = thismailbody12+thismailbody11; Even if standardized protocols for isolation, characterization, and evaluation are needed, recent data suggest that saliva may be successfully included in future clinical diagnostic processes, with a considerable impact on early treatment strategies and a favorable outcome. Clin. KIF20A (also named RAB6KIFL), has been reported overexpressed in many cancers including pancreatic cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, and glioma [33-37]. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! var thismailbody3 = ""; 2021 Feb 12;57(2):164. doi: 10.3390/medicina57020164. DEGs: differentially expressed genes; EAC: esophageal adenocarcinoma; ESCC: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus; GO: Gene ontology; MCC: Maximal Clique Centrality; NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information; PCA: principal component analysis; PPI: protein‑protein interaction; qPCR: real-time quantitative PCR; scRNA-seq: single cell RNA sequencing; TCGA: The Cancer Genome Atlas; ROC: receiver operating curve; TIMER: Tumor Immune Estimation Resource. Moreover, after primary treatment, recurrences and/or metastases are found in more than half of the patients (80% of cases within the first 2 years) and the 5-year survival rate is still lower than 50%, resulting in a serious issue for public health. 2012;92(6):593-597, 35. Keywords: ESCC, biomarkers, diagnostic, poor prognosis, therapeutic targets. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality around the world. Int J Mol Sci.