In: Chr. J.-C., au Néolithique précéramique A et au B [1], [2], situé dans la province de Şanlıurfa, au sud-est de l’Anatolie, en Turquie, près de la frontière avec la Syrie, à proximité de la ville de Şanlıurfa.. Eine Beschreibung der wichtigsten Befunde erstellt nach den Arbeiten der Grabungsteams der Jahre 1995–2007", in K. Schmidt (ed. Share. All of the animal bones excavated came from local game, predominately gazelle, boar, sheep, deer and wild fowl, which suggests that the people who made and used the site were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Schmidt quickly realized that the site at Göbekli Tepe was far more significant than the medieval burial site hypothesized by earlier archaeologists. [5] Schmidt continued to direct excavations at the site on behalf of the Şanlıurfa Museum and the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) until his death in 2014. Göbekli Tepe est un site préhistorique du Mésolithique, situé dans la province de Şanlıurfa, au sud-est de l’Anatolie, en Turquie, près de la frontière avec la Syrie. Göbekli Tepe (Turkish: [gœbecˈli teˈpe],[1] "Potbelly Hill"),[2] is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey approximately 15 km (9 mi) as the crow flies or 30 km (19 mi) by car, northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa. Four such circular structures have been unearthed so far. [63], In 2010, Global Heritage Fund (GHF) announced it will undertake a multi-year conservation program to preserve Göbekli Tepe. Although this theory has been challenged by archaeologists and anthropologists in recent decades, the discovery of Göbekli Tepe finally provides hard evidence to support an alternative point of view. ", "Göbekli Tepe: The World's First Temple? In 2018, the site was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Because the statue is damaged, the interpretation is not entirely clear. The team found no traces of human settlement around the site: no remains of houses, ovens or trenches for rubbish. Gobekli Tepe’s design and age have captured the public’s imagination for decades. [23] On top of the ridge there is considerable evidence of human impact, in addition to the construction of the tell. [30], At the western escarpment, a small cave has been discovered in which a small relief depicting a bovid was found. Creation of the circular enclosures in layer III later gave way to the construction of small rectangular rooms in layer II. Photo by Teomancimit CC BY-SA 3.0. Whether the circles were provided with a roof is uncertain. Though no tombs or graves have yet been found, Schmidt believed that graves remain to be discovered in niches located behind the walls of the sacred circles. [38] Several T-pillars up to 1.5 meters tall occupy the center of the rooms. Their study of the three oldest stone enclosures at Göbekli Tepe has revealed a hidden geometric pattern, specifically an equilateral triangle, underlying … [6], A number of radiocarbon dates have been published:[21], The Hd samples are from charcoal in the fill of the lowest levels of the site and date the end of the active phase of the occupation of Level III – the actual structures will be older. Instead, each enclosure was deliberately buried under as much as 300 to 500 cubic meters (390 to 650 cu yd) of refuse, creating a tell consisting mainly of small limestone fragments, stone vessels, and stone tools. Göbekli Tepe: The Worlds First Temple January 19, 2019 Julia Penelope Patheos Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! Photo by Zhengan CC BY-SA 4.0. A View from Göbekli Tepe", "Turkey: Archeological dig reshaping human history", "Karahan Tepe: A new cultural centre in the Urfa area in Turkey", "A small-scale cult centre in southeast Turkey: Harbetsuvan Tepesi", "New pre-pottery neolithic settlements from Viranşehir District", "Concrete poured on Turkish World Heritage site", "Construction around site of Göbeklitepe stirs debate", "So Fair a House: Göbekli Tepe and the Identification of Temples in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of the Near East", http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/gobekli-tepe.html, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/06/gobekli-tepe/mann-text, "Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey: a preliminary assessment, "Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey. [2] Es handelt sich um einen durch wiederholte Besiedlung entstandenen Hügel (Tell) mit einer Höhe von 15 Metern und einem Durchmesser von rund 300 Metern. The reliefs depict mammals such as lions, bulls, boars, foxes, gazelles, and donkeys; snakes and other reptiles; arthropods such as insects and arachnids; and birds, particularly vultures. Smithsonian magazine noted that Göbekli Tepe (sometimes written as “gobekli tepe” or “göbekli tepe”) predates Stonehenge by 6,000 years and “upends the conventional view of the rise of civilization.” The site is regarded as early evidence of prehistoric worship, featuring unmistakable temples and stunningly carved stone monoliths. "GHF – Göbekli Tepe – Turkey", globalheritagefund.org, web: "GHF – Gobekli Tepe, Turkey – Overview"; globalheritagefund.org: RIR-Klaus Schmidt-Göbekli Tepe-The Worlds Oldest Temple? Recent DNA analysis of modern domesticated wheat compared with wild wheat has shown that its DNA is closest in sequence to wild wheat found on Karaca Dağ 30 km (20 mi) away from the site, suggesting that this is where modern wheat was first domesticated.[46]. The largest of them lies on the northern plateau. Göbekli Tepe is one of the world’s most significant, yet mysterious, archaeological sites. Gobekli Tepe is currently the oldest temple in the entire world. [52], Göbekli Tepe is regarded by some as an archaeological discovery of great importance since it could profoundly change the understanding of a crucial stage in the development of human society. It was excavated by the German Archaeological Institute and has been submerged by the Atatürk Dam since 1992. Early Neolithic religion and economic change". The magnificent megaliths and T-shaped pillars, some of which are up to 5.50 meters tall at Göbekli Tepe have long fascinated scientists and many consider the site to be home of the world's oldest temple. The pattern is an equilateral triangle that connects enclosures A, B, and D. This means that the people who built Göbekli Tepe had at least some rudimentary knowledge of geometry. Long ago, over 200 carved stone pillars, carefully arranged in tightly packed circles, stood proudly on the hill of Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). Most structures on the plateau seem to be the result of Neolithic quarrying, with the quarries being used as sources for the huge, monolithic architectural elements. The pictograms may represent commonly understood sacred symbols, as known from Neolithic cave paintings elsewhere. This platform corresponds to the complexes from Layer III at the tell. [39], A stone pillar resembling totem pole designs was discovered at Göbekli Tepe, Layer II in 2010. [27] Several quarries where round workpieces had been produced were identified. Sütterlin et al. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism responded that no concrete was used and that no damage had occurred. Although the true purpose of this incredible site remains shrouded in mystery, it is hoped that continued excavations will provide further clues about its fascinating past. Each pillar has a height of up to 6 m (20 ft) and weighs up to 10 tons. Since its discovery, however, surface surveys have shown that several hills in the greater area also have 'T'-shaped stone pillars (e.g. They range from 10 to 30 metres in diameter. [18] Recent excavations have been more limited than Schmidt's, focusing on detailed documentation and conservation of the areas already exposed. Two taller pillars stand facing one another at the centre of each circle. that the elevated location may have functioned as a spiritual center during 10,000 BCE or earlier, essentially, at the very end of the Pleistocene. Schmidt also engaged in speculation regarding the belief systems of the groups that created Göbekli Tepe, based on comparisons with other shrines and settlements. The several adjoining rectangular, doorless and windowless rooms have floors of polished lime reminiscent of Roman terrazzo floors. Its weight may be around 50 tons. Dr. Kodaş and his team of archaeologists discovered that the 11,000 year-old temple walls were made of rubble and held in place with a hardened clay base, but they haven’t yet reached the base of the structure. The advent of agriculture and animal husbandry brought new realities to human life in the area, and the "Stone-age zoo" (Schmidt's phrase applied particularly to Layer III, Enclosure D) apparently lost whatever significance it had had for the region's older, foraging communities. [citation needed], Archaeologists estimate that up to 500 persons were required to extract the heavy pillars from local quarries and move them 100–500 meters (330–1,640 ft) to the site. [citation needed]. Göbekli Tepe, Şanlıurfa. [6] During the first phase, belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars were erected—the world's oldest known megaliths.[7]. These include images of scorpions, lions, snakes, and vultures, a collection of symbols that are associated with religion, death and the afterlife in other ancient cultures of the Near East. Its floor has been carefully hewn out of the bedrock and smoothed, reminiscent of the terrazzo floors of the younger complexes at Göbekli Tepe. [dubious – discuss] The inhabitants are presumed to have been hunters and gatherers who nevertheless lived in villages for at least part of the year. View of excavations at Göbekli Tepe site. But how did a hill not… [5][42] Schmidt believed that what he called this "cathedral on a hill" was a pilgrimage destination attracting worshippers up to 150 km (90 mi) distant. Klaus-Dieter Linsmeier and Klaus Schmidt: "Ein anatolisches Stonehenge". He presumed shamanic practices and suggested that the T-shaped pillars represent human forms, perhaps ancestors, whereas he saw a fully articulated belief in deities as not developing until later, in Mesopotamia, that was associated with extensive temples and palaces. It is thought that this temple was created as a place to worship dog star, Sirius. [20] Remains of smaller buildings identified as Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) and dating from the 9th millennium BCE have also been unearthed. [5], In 1994, German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt, who had previously been working at Nevalı Çori, was looking for another site to excavate. In all other directions, the ridge descends steeply into slopes and steep cliffs. [14] American archaeologist Peter Benedict identified lithics collected from the surface of the site as belonging to the Aceramic Neolithic,[15] but mistook stone slabs (the upper parts of the T-shaped pillars) for grave markers, postulating that the prehistoric phase was overlain by a Byzantine cemetery. This is the site that some historians are calling the most important archaeological find of the 20th century and the world’s first temple. İnsanlık Tarihi İçin Neden Bu Kadar Önemlidir? Since then, the DAI's research at the site has been coordinated by Lee Clare. The pole features three figures, the uppermost depicting a predator, probably a bear, and below it a human-like shape. Carbon dating has yielded dates between 8800 and 8000 BCE. Few humanoid figures have appeared in the art at Göbekli Tepe. At some point attempts had been made to break up some of the pillars, presumably by farmers who mistook them for ordinary large rocks. The excavations have been ongoing since 1996 by the German Archaeological Institute, but large parts still remain unexcavated. Vorläufiger Bericht zu den Grabungen am Göbekli Tepe und am Gürcütepe 1995–1999. Excavations at Gobekli Tepe point to the possibility that the builders of Gobekli Tepe may have been the Native inhabitants, the Denisovans or the Anunnaki Ancient Astronaut Aliens.. This could indicate that this type of architecture and associated activities originated at Göbekli Tepe, and then spread to other sites. These possibly are related to a square building in the neighbourhood, of which only the foundation is preserved. Son occupation comprend deux niveaux, qui se chevauchent sans doute en partie. [9], While the site formally belongs to the earliest Neolithic (PPNA), to date no traces of domesticated plants or animals have been found. Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological site found in the southeast of Turkey. He reviewed the archaeological literature on the surrounding area, found the 1963 Chicago researchers' brief description of Göbekli Tepe, and decided to reexamine the site. The details of the structure's function remain a mystery. The tell (artificial mound) has a height of 15 m (50 ft) and is about 300 m (1,000 ft) in diameter. Erecting these stone pillars and placing such heavy blocks on top of them would have required an immense feat of engineering. That could mean the two sites, while similar, were separated by more than their 35 km (21.7 mile) distance. Gobekli Tepe was first examined—and dismissed—by University of Chicago and Istanbul University anthropologists in the 1960s. Klaus Schmidt (2009) "Göbekli Tepe – Eine Beschreibung der wichtigsten Befunde erstellt nach den Arbeiten der Grabungsteams der Jahre 1995–2007"; Dietrich, Oliver. Read another story from us: This Year’s European Capital of Culture is Also its Oldest City – Take a Tour. Julia Gresky, Juliane Haelm and Lee Clare, "Modified human crania from Göbekli Tepe provide evidence for a new form of Neolithic skull cult". Fragments of a similar pole also were discovered about 20 years ago in another site in Turkey at Nevalı Çori. Helpful. [5] Vultures also feature prominently in the iconography of Çatalhöyük and Jericho. Andrew Curry, "Göbekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?". David Lewis-Williams and David Pearce, "An Accidental revolution? [59] So far none of the smaller sites are as old as the lowest Level III of Göbekli Tepe,[47] but are contemporary with the younger Level II (mostly rectangular buildings, though Harbetsuvan is circular). Younger structures date to classical times. Göbekli Tepe est un site préhistorique occupé aux X e et IX e millénaires av. "[61] It is not known why every few decades the existing pillars were buried to be replaced by new stones as part of a smaller, concentric ring inside the older one. Entry costs 45 TL. Göbekli Tepe is on a flat and barren plateau, with buildings fanning in all directions. Its 'T'-shaped pillars are considerably smaller, and its rectangular ceremonial structure was located inside a village. Der Göbekli Tepe (deutsch bauchiger Hügel, kurdisch Xirabreşk) ist ein prähistorischer Fundort 15 Kilometer nordöstlich der südostanatolischen Stadt Şanlıurfa in der Türkei. However, the specific function of the site at Göbekli Tepe remains a mystery. State of Research and New Data", "Israeli Archaeologists Find Hidden Pattern at 'World's Oldest Temple' Göbekli Tepe", "Geometry and Architectural Planning at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey", "New Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites and cult centres in the Urfa Region", "Cooperative Action of Hunter-Gatherers in the Early Neolithic Near East. Alone the logistics of the thing suggest a organised society. Heun et al., "Site of Einkorn Wheat Domestication Identified by DNA Fingerprinting", K. Schmidt 2000: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt.". Carbon dating suggests that (for reasons unknown) the enclosures were backfilled during the Stone Age. Karul points out that, while both Göbekli Tepe and Karahan Tepe are loaded with T-shaped columns, the statues are different, with Göbekli Tepe having more animal representations while Karahan Tepe has more humans. In modern times, it was rediscovered in 1963 during a survey conducted by Istanbul University and University of Chicago. He began excavations the following year and soon unearthed the first of the huge T-shaped pillars. ", "Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries: New results of ongoing excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reliefs,", Göbekli Tepe preservation project summary, "Tepe Telegrams: News & Notes from the Göbekli Tepe Research Staff", "World's oldest temple probably built to worship the dog star, Sirius", "7,000 years older than Stonehenge: the site that stunned archaeologists", "Cereal Processing at Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey", "Turkey: Archeological Dig Reshaping Human History", Buzzwords, Bogeymen, and Banalities of Pseudoarchaeology: Göbekli Tepe, Chelae on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus, Chelae on the European coast of the Bosphorus, Stone circles, lines and tombs near the Monastery of Saint Moses the Abyssinian, "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Göbekli_Tepe&oldid=995950073, Archaeological sites in Southeastern Anatolia, Archaeological sites of prehistoric Anatolia, Buildings and structures in Şanlıurfa Province, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with disputed statements from December 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2020, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Wikipedia articles containing unlinked shortened footnotes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed. Göbekli Tepe site. At 12000 years, Gobekli Tepe is the oldest known stone ruins whose builders are unknown. Göbekli Tepe , is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey approximately 12 km (7 mi) northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa. This is evident in the artifacts and relief sculptures found at the site. In the north, the plateau is connected to a neighbouring mountain range by a narrow promontory. A preliminary Report on the 1995–1999 Excavations. The authors suggest that enclosures A, B, and D are all one complex, and within this complex there is a "hierarchy" with enclosure D at the top. [62], Future plans include construction of a museum and converting the environs into an archaeological park, in the hope that this will help preserve the site in the state in which it was discovered. [12][dubious – discuss], Around the beginning of the 8th millennium BCE Göbekli Tepe lost its importance. In an interview with Andrew Curry for Smithsonian Magazine, Schmidt explained that it didn’t take his team long to uncover the first series of stone megaliths, close to the surface. Thought to be a Neolithic temple, this ancient stone circle is 6,000 years older than Stonehenge, and far more complex. They are near the quarries of classical times, making their dating difficult. [4] It is approximately 760 m (2,500 ft) above sea level. [64], The stated goals of the GHF Göbekli Tepe project are to support the preparation of a site management and conservation plan, construction of a shelter over the exposed archaeological features, training community members in guiding and conservation, and helping Turkish authorities secure UNESCO World Heritage Site designation for GT. Klaus Schmidt's view was that Göbekli Tepe is a stone-age mountain sanctuary. The site was abandoned after the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). Structures identified with the succeeding period, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), have been dated to the 10th millennium BCE. [1] Er liegt auf dem mit 750 Meter höchsten Punkt der langgestreckten Bergkette von Germuş. To date, only zooarchaeological evidence has been discussed in regard to the subsistence of its builders. Pillar 27 from Enclosure C (Layer III) with the sculpture of a predatory animal. So far, very little evidence for residential use has been found. [28] It is unclear, on the other hand, how to classify three phallic depictions from the surface of the southern plateau. Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie. UNESCO geçen yıl Göbekli Tepe’yi Dünya Miras Listesi’ne aldı. [25] The authors of the paper discuss the implications of their findings. [60], The assumption that the site was strictly cultic in purpose and not inhabited has been challenged as well by the suggestion that the structures served as large communal houses, "similar in some ways to the large plank houses of the Northwest Coast of North America with their impressive house posts and totem poles. The roughly contemporary architecture at Jericho is devoid of artistic merit or large-scale sculpture, and Çatalhöyük, perhaps the most famous Anatolian Neolithic village, was built 2,000 years later. Having found similar structures at Nevalı Çori, he recognized the possibility that the rocks and slabs were prehistoric. According to Smithsonian Magazine, Göbekli Tepe was first discovered in 1994 by Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute. Au sud-ouest se trouve la ville de Şanlıurfa. [44], Schmidt considered Göbekli Tepe a central location for a cult of the dead and that the carved animals are there to protect the dead. Introduction, materials and methods Göbekli Tepe is a prehistoric, man-made megalithic hill site in today’s southeast Turkey which is riddled with walled circular and rectangular enclosures lined by and surrounding T-shaped monolithic pillars proposed to represent supernatural humanoid beings. At the western edge of the hill, a lionlike figure was found. The area around the site had long been earmarked for further investigation, as its dome-shaped hill bore all the signs of a “tell”, a mound created as a result of the deposits of ancient settlements. However, the complex was not simply abandoned and forgotten to be gradually destroyed by the elements. Most of these constructions seem to be smaller than Göbekli Tepe, and their placement evenly between contemporaneous settlements indicates that they were local social-ritual gathering places,[58][47] with Göbekli Tepe perhaps as a regional centre. The authors also say that, compared to previous estimations, the amount of manpower required to build Göbekli Tepe should be multiplied by three. Yet the site was constructed in 9,500 BC, thousands of years before the development of written language and agriculture, and well before human beings began to develop permanent settlements and cities. According to a report in Daily Sabah , within the excavation site, the archaeologists found four stone stelae, three of which were des… Some of the T-shaped pillars have human arms carved on their lower half, however, suggesting to site excavator Schmidt that they are intended to represent the bodies of stylized humans (or perhaps deities). The slabs were transported from bedrock pits located approximately 100 metres (330 ft) from the hilltop, with workers using flint points to cut through the limestone bedrock.[32]. Bunun üzerine Cumhurbaşkanı Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, AKP Grup Toplantısında “2019’u Göbekli Tepe Yılı” ilan edildiğini açıkladı.

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