Early Neolithic religion and economic change". Loincloths appear on the lower half of a few pillars. Date of experience: November 2020. The largest of them lies on the northern plateau. ", "Göbekli Tepe: A Neolithic Site in Southwestern Anatolia", "World's Oldest Monument to Receive a Multi-Million Dollar Investment", "Göbekli Tepe: Nomination for Inclusion on the World Heritage List", "Turkey: Conservation, not excavation, focus in Gobeklitepe", "Establishing a Radiocarbon Sequence for Göbekli Tepe. [citation needed], Archaeologists estimate that up to 500 persons were required to extract the heavy pillars from local quarries and move them 100–500 meters (330–1,640 ft) to the site. In: Charles C. Mann, "The Birth of Religion: The World's First Temple". This ancient temple is thought to be more than 10.000 years old. With its mountains catching the rain and a calcareous, porous bedrock creating many springs, creeks, and rivers,[47] the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris was a refuge during the dry and cold Younger Dryas climatic event (10,800–9,500 BCE). If you are a fan of archeology or you just like the ruins, then you should definitely not miss visiting this place, Göbekli Tepe. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the local bedrock. “Göbekli Tepe is regarded by some as an archaeological discovery of the greatest importance since it could profoundly change the understanding of a crucial stage in the development of human society. The site was abandoned after the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). It remains unknown how a population large enough to construct, augment, and maintain such a substantial complex was mobilized and compensated or fed in the conditions of pre-sedentary society. Younger structures date to classical times. At the western edge of the hill, a lionlike figure was found. Son occupation comprend deux niveaux, qui se chevauchent sans doute en partie. (, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 19:03. [65], The conservation work caused controversy in 2018, when Çiğdem Köksal Schmidt, an archaeologist and widow of Klaus Schmidt, said the site was being damaged by the use of concrete and "heavy equipment" during the construction of a new walkway. Scholars have been unable to interpret the pictograms, and do not know what meaning the animal reliefs had for visitors to the site. [34] Whether they were intended to serve as surrogate worshippers, symbolize venerated ancestors, or represent supernatural, anthropomorphic beings is not known. Karul points out that, while both Göbekli Tepe and Karahan Tepe are loaded with T-shaped columns, the statues are different, with Göbekli Tepe having more animal representations while Karahan Tepe has more humans. Julia Gresky, Juliane Haelm and Lee Clare, "Modified human crania from Göbekli Tepe provide evidence for a new form of Neolithic skull cult". [4] It is approximately 760 m (2,500 ft) above sea level. [66][67], archaeological and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological site found in the southeast of Turkey. The site was deliberately backfilled sometime after 8000 BCE: the buildings were buried under debris, mostly flint gravel, stone tools, and animal bones. More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are known (as of May 2020) through geophysical surveys. Two taller pillars stand facing one another at the centre of each circle. [39], A stone pillar resembling totem pole designs was discovered at Göbekli Tepe, Layer II in 2010. [14] American archaeologist Peter Benedict identified lithics collected from the surface of the site as belonging to the Aceramic Neolithic,[15] but mistook stone slabs (the upper parts of the T-shaped pillars) for grave markers, postulating that the prehistoric phase was overlain by a Byzantine cemetery. and numerous Nemrik points, Helwan-points, and Aswad-points dominate the backfill's lithic inventory. Ian Hodder of Stanford University said, “Göbekli Tepe changes everything”. Radiocarbon dating as well as comparative stylistical analysis indicate that it is the oldest known temple yet discovered anywhere. Although the true purpose of this incredible site remains shrouded in mystery, it is hoped that continued excavations will provide further clues about its fascinating past. David Lewis-Williams and David Pearce, "An Accidental revolution? See more ideas about göbekli tepe, ancient civilizations, ancient mysteries. However, the complex was not simply abandoned and forgotten to be gradually destroyed by the elements. According to Smithsonian Magazine, Göbekli Tepe was first discovered in 1994 by Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute. In modern times, it was rediscovered in 1963 during a survey conducted by Istanbul University and University of Chicago. Whether the circles were provided with a roof is uncertain. Göbekli Tepe ruins near the city of Sanliurfa in the southeast region of Anatolia, Turkey. Photo by Rolfcosar CC BY-SA 3.0. Until his death in 2014, Schmidt remained convinced that it was an important religious temple, and his view is supported by the elaborate carvings on the pillars. ... 2019, Arizona State University Schmidt identified this story as a primeval oriental myth that preserves a partial memory of the emerging Neolithic. Eine Beschreibung der wichtigsten Befunde erstellt nach den Arbeiten der Grabungsteams der Jahre 1995–2007", in K. Schmidt (ed. there are no depictions of hunting raids or wounded animals, and the pillar carvings generally ignore game on which the society depended, such as deer, in favour of formidable creatures such as lions, snakes, spiders, and scorpions. Gobekli Tepe is currently the oldest temple in the entire world. Alternatively, they could have served as totems. In this area, flint and limestone fragments occur more frequently. Unequivocally Neolithic are three T-shaped pillars that had not yet been levered out of the bedrock. This is the site that some historians are calling the most important archaeological find of the 20th century and the world’s first temple. Klaus-Dieter Linsmeier and Klaus Schmidt: "Ein anatolisches Stonehenge". Ein Forschungsbericht zum präkeramischen Neolithikum Obermesopotamiens". Klaus Schmidt (2009) "Göbekli Tepe – Eine Beschreibung der wichtigsten Befunde erstellt nach den Arbeiten der Grabungsteams der Jahre 1995–2007"; Dietrich, Oliver. [37] Layer II is assigned to Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). So far, very little evidence for residential use has been found. 8 Mart 2019 tarihinde de Göbekli Tepe’nin önemini anlatan bir konuşma ile “Göbekli Tepe Yılı”nı açtı. Göbekli Tepe is a site that practically begs for archaeological study. Andrew Curry, "Göbekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?". ): "Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien. Partners include the German Archaeological Institute, German Research Foundation, Şanlıurfa Municipal Government, the Turkish Ministry of Tourism and Culture and, formerly, Klaus Schmidt. It is 1.92 metres high, and is superficially reminiscent of the totem poles in North America. Excavations at Gobekli Tepe point to the possibility that the builders of Gobekli Tepe may have been the Native inhabitants, the Denisovans or the Anunnaki Ancient Astronaut Aliens.. [35] Radiocarbon dating places the construction of these early circles in the range of 9600 to 8800 BCE. The tell includes two phases of use, believed to be of a social or ritual nature by site discoverer and excavator Klaus Schmidt,[5] dating back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE. Erika Qasim: "The T-shaped monuments of Gobekli Tepe: Posture of the Arms". 4. Göbekli Tepe. [dubious – discuss] Through the radiocarbon method, the end of Layer III can be fixed at about 9000 BCE (see above), but it is hypothesized by some archaeologists[by whom?] Today, we know this is not true. Photo by Teomancimit CC BY-SA 3.0. Sütterlin et al. As there is little or no evidence of habitation, and many of the animals pictured are predators, the stones may have been intended to stave off evils through some form of magic representation. The two other unfinished pillars lie on the southern Plateau. [20] Remains of smaller buildings identified as Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) and dating from the 9th millennium BCE have also been unearthed. Their status as quarries was confirmed by the find of a 3-by-3 metre piece at the southeastern slope of the plateau. (ed. K. Schmidt, 2000a = Göbekli Tepe and the rock art of the Near East. Heun et al., "Site of Einkorn Wheat Domestication Identified by DNA Fingerprinting", K. Schmidt 2000: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt.". To date, only zooarchaeological evidence has been discussed in regard to the subsistence of its builders. The Ua samples come from pedogenic carbonate coatings on pillars and only indicate the time after the site was abandoned – the terminus ante quem.[22]. [2] Es handelt sich um einen durch wiederholte Besiedlung entstandenen Hügel (Tell) mit einer Höhe von 15 Metern und einem Durchmesser von rund 300 Metern. Read more. Göbekli Tepe is on a flat and barren plateau, with buildings fanning in all directions. Long ago, over 200 carved stone pillars, carefully arranged in tightly packed circles, stood proudly on the hill of Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). The discovery of Göbekli Tepe has major implications for our understanding of the way in which early human societies developed. Few humanoid figures have appeared in the art at Göbekli Tepe. Its weight may be around 50 tons. Presumably this is the remains of a Roman watchtower that was part of the Limes Arabicus, though this is conjecture.[27]. In 2018, the site was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The tell (artificial mound) has a height of 15 m (50 ft) and is about 300 m (1,000 ft) in diameter. The authors also say that, compared to previous estimations, the amount of manpower required to build Göbekli Tepe should be multiplied by three. Whoever built Göbekli Tepe were certainly not hunter/gatherers. [5][50][51] Expanding on Schmidt's interpretation that round enclosures could represent sanctuaries, Gheorghiu's semiotic interpretation reads the Göbekli Tepe iconography as a cosmogonic map that would have related the local community to the surrounding landscape and the cosmos. “This is the first human-built holy place,” said Schmidt. The advent of agriculture and animal husbandry brought new realities to human life in the area, and the "Stone-age zoo" (Schmidt's phrase applied particularly to Layer III, Enclosure D) apparently lost whatever significance it had had for the region's older, foraging communities. These possibly are related to a square building in the neighbourhood, of which only the foundation is preserved. In addition to its large dimensions, the side-by-side existence of multiple pillar shrines makes the location unique. Klaus Schmidt's view was that Göbekli Tepe is a stone-age mountain sanctuary. It is thought that this temple was created as a place to worship dog star, Sirius. Excavations have taken place at the southern slope of the tell, south and west of a mulberry that marks an Islamic pilgrimage,[24] but archaeological finds come from the entire plateau. The excavations have been ongoing since 1996 by the German Archaeological Institute, but large parts still remain unexcavated. Alone the logistics of the thing suggest a organised society. You can eighter walk 1 km to the site or take a free shuttle service. Most structures on the plateau seem to be the result of Neolithic quarrying, with the quarries being used as sources for the huge, monolithic architectural elements. Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit.". Comments on 14C-Dates from Göbekli Tepe. List of archaeological sites by continent and age, "Göbeklitepe Neyi Saklıyor? [64], The stated goals of the GHF Göbekli Tepe project are to support the preparation of a site management and conservation plan, construction of a shelter over the exposed archaeological features, training community members in guiding and conservation, and helping Turkish authorities secure UNESCO World Heritage Site designation for GT. The roughly contemporary architecture at Jericho is devoid of artistic merit or large-scale sculpture, and Çatalhöyük, perhaps the most famous Anatolian Neolithic village, was built 2,000 years later. Creation of the circular enclosures in layer III later gave way to the construction of small rectangular rooms in layer II. Pillar 2 from Enclosure A (Layer III) with low reliefs of what are believed to be a bull, fox, and crane. Göbekli Tepe is a must see. 12–25. Located in Turkey, Gobekli Tepe is a vast Stone Temple building. A site that is 500 years younger is Nevalı Çori, a Neolithic settlement. [18] Recent excavations have been more limited than Schmidt's, focusing on detailed documentation and conservation of the areas already exposed. At some point attempts had been made to break up some of the pillars, presumably by farmers who mistook them for ordinary large rocks. [63], In 2010, Global Heritage Fund (GHF) announced it will undertake a multi-year conservation program to preserve Göbekli Tepe. Though no tombs or graves have yet been found, Schmidt believed that graves remain to be discovered in niches located behind the walls of the sacred circles. [3] The tell (artificial mound) has a height of 15 m (50 ft) and is about 300 m (1,000 ft) in diameter. Structures identified with the succeeding period, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), have been dated to the 10th millennium BCE. ), Metin Yeşilyurt, "Die wissenschaftliche Interpretation von Göbeklitepe: Die Theorie und das Forschungsprogramm". Because the statue is damaged, the interpretation is not entirely clear. "[2][53] If indeed the site was built by hunter-gatherers, as some researchers believe, then it would mean that the ability to erect monumental complexes was within the capacities of these sorts of groups, which would overturn previous assumptions. "GHF – Göbekli Tepe – Turkey", globalheritagefund.org, web: "GHF – Gobekli Tepe, Turkey – Overview"; globalheritagefund.org: RIR-Klaus Schmidt-Göbekli Tepe-The Worlds Oldest Temple? [23] On top of the ridge there is considerable evidence of human impact, in addition to the construction of the tell. At 12000 years, Gobekli Tepe is the oldest known stone ruins whose builders are unknown. draperha wrote a review Nov 2020. The team has also found many remains of tools. Photo by Teomancimit CC BY-SA 3.0. The slabs were transported from bedrock pits located approximately 100 metres (330 ft) from the hilltop, with workers using flint points to cut through the limestone bedrock.[32]. [dubious – discuss] The inhabitants are presumed to have been hunters and gatherers who nevertheless lived in villages for at least part of the year. It is approximately 760 m (2,500 ft) above sea level. [5], In 1994, German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt, who had previously been working at Nevalı Çori, was looking for another site to excavate. [5] Vultures also feature prominently in the iconography of Çatalhöyük and Jericho. In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. Göbekli Tepe, Şanlıurfa. He presumed shamanic practices and suggested that the T-shaped pillars represent human forms, perhaps ancestors, whereas he saw a fully articulated belief in deities as not developing until later, in Mesopotamia, that was associated with extensive temples and palaces. Their profiles were pecked into the rock, with the detached blocks then levered out of the rock bank. [12][dubious – discuss], Around the beginning of the 8th millennium BCE Göbekli Tepe lost its importance. ): K. Schmidt: "Frühneolithische Tempel. [27] Several quarries where round workpieces had been produced were identified. This could indicate that this type of architecture and associated activities originated at Göbekli Tepe, and then spread to other sites. [1] Er liegt auf dem mit 750 Meter höchsten Punkt der langgestreckten Bergkette von Germuş. Göbekli Tepe is one of the world’s most significant, yet mysterious, archaeological sites. The site has been partially excavated, mainly through the efforts of Klaus Schmidt working for the German Archaeological Institute. The area around the site had long been earmarked for further investigation, as its dome-shaped hill bore all the signs of a “tell”, a mound created as a result of the deposits of ancient settlements. The Göbekli Tepe complex is believed to have been made by hunters and gatherers and has been the subject or archeological debate since its discovery by … A pair decorated with fierce-looking lions is the rationale for the name "lion pillar building" by which their enclosure is known. If anything, a discovery by Israeli archaeologists suggests the Göbekli Tepe construction project was even more complex than previously thought, and required an amount of planning and resources thought to be impossible for those times. Erecting these stone pillars and placing such heavy blocks on top of them would have required an immense feat of engineering. Their study of the three oldest stone enclosures at Göbekli Tepe has revealed a hidden geometric pattern, specifically an equilateral triangle, underlying … [29], At this early stage of the site's history, circular compounds or temene first appear. Helpful. It was excavated by the German Archaeological Institute and has been submerged by the Atatürk Dam since 1992. Instead, they found many animal bones within the temple, which bore the signs of having been butchered and cooked. Share. The hunter-gatherers who built Portasar seemed to possess a remarkable cognizance about life – be it zoological, anatomical, celestial, et al. Introduction, materials and methods [44], Schmidt considered Göbekli Tepe a central location for a cult of the dead and that the carved animals are there to protect the dead. The several adjoining rectangular, doorless and windowless rooms have floors of polished lime reminiscent of Roman terrazzo floors. Thought to be a Neolithic temple, this ancient stone circle is 6,000 years older than Stonehenge, and far more complex. It has a length of 7 m (23 ft) and its head has a width of 3 m (10 ft). This is evident in the artifacts and relief sculptures found at the site. According to this narrative, it was only once humans had developed permanent settlements and systems of agriculture and farming that they were able to have the time, organization and resources to develop temples and complicated social structures. [45], Schmidt also interpreted the site in connection with the initial stages of the Neolithic. It is the only relief found in this cave. [25] The authors of the paper discuss the implications of their findings. It is estimated that it might take at least a month to reach into the sacred building’s foundations. The site, which sits in the country of Turkey, is roughly eleven thousand years old. Der Göbekli Tepe (deutsch bauchiger Hügel, kurdisch Xirabreşk) ist ein prähistorischer Fundort 15 Kilometer nordöstlich der südostanatolischen Stadt Şanlıurfa in der Türkei. Pillar 27 from Enclosure C (Layer III) with the sculpture of a predatory animal. [9], While the site formally belongs to the earliest Neolithic (PPNA), to date no traces of domesticated plants or animals have been found. UNESCO geçen yıl Göbekli Tepe’yi Dünya Miras Listesi’ne aldı. [5] Schmidt continued to direct excavations at the site on behalf of the Şanlıurfa Museum and the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) until his death in 2014. Stone benches designed for sitting are found in the interior. It was therefore suggested that this could have been some kind of sculpture workshop. At the time the edifice was constructed, the surrounding country was likely to have been forested and capable of sustaining this variety of wildlife, before millennia of human settlement and cultivation led to the near–Dust Bowl conditions prevalent today. Göbekli Tepe est un site préhistorique du Mésolithique, situé dans la province de Şanlıurfa, au sud-est de l’Anatolie, en Turquie, près de la frontière avec la Syrie. [49] It is apparent that the animal and other images give no indication of organized violence, i.e. Some of the floors in this, the oldest, layer are made of terrazzo (burnt lime); others are bedrock from which pedestals to hold the large pair of central pillars were carved in high relief. Geophysical surveys indicate that there are 16 more, enclosing up to eight pillars each, amounting to nearly 200 pillars in all. View of excavations at Göbekli Tepe site. Fragments of a similar pole also were discovered about 20 years ago in another site in Turkey at Nevalı Çori. The area around the site had long been earmarked for further investigation, as its dome-shaped hill bore all the signs of a “tell”, a mound created as a result of the deposits of ancient settlements. In defense of an archaeology of cult at Pre-Pottery Neolithic Gobekli Tepe", "Gobekli Tepe: The World's First Temple? There are four 10-metre-long (33 ft) and 20-centimetre-wide (7.9 in) channels on the southern part of the plateau, interpreted as the remains of an ancient quarry from which rectangular blocks were taken. Dr. Kodaş and his team of archaeologists discovered that the 11,000 year-old temple walls were made of rubble and held in place with a hardened clay base, but they haven’t yet reached the base of the structure. [8] In the second phase, belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), the erected pillars are smaller and stood in rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime. Rectangular buildings make a more efficient use of space compared with circular structures. Göbekli Tepe est un site préhistorique occupé aux X e et IX e millénaires av. In an interview with Andrew Curry for Smithsonian Magazine, Schmidt explained that it didn’t take his team long to uncover the first series of stone megaliths, close to the surface. Sure, this monumental site was essentially buried underground, so it wasn’t the easiest to find. All of the animal bones excavated came from local game, predominately gazelle, boar, sheep, deer and wild fowl, which suggests that the people who made and used the site were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Indeed, according to Smithsonian Magazine, in the 1,000 years following the construction of the temple, permanent settlements do appear in other parts of Anatolia and northern Syria, providing some of the earliest evidence for the cultivation of wheat crops and the domestication of cattle. [citation needed]. that the elevated location may have functioned as a spiritual center during 10,000 BCE or earlier, essentially, at the very end of the Pleistocene. It is the shallowest, but accounts for the longest stretch of time. In the north, the plateau is connected to a neighbouring mountain range by a narrow promontory. (2011). Its 'T'-shaped pillars are considerably smaller, and its rectangular ceremonial structure was located inside a village. Göbekli Tepe is a prehistoric, man-made megalithic hill site in today’s southeast Turkey which is riddled with walled circular and rectangular enclosures lined by and surrounding T-shaped monolithic pillars proposed to represent supernatural humanoid beings. Photo by Zhengan CC BY-SA 4.0. Gobekli Tepe’s design and age have captured the public’s imagination for decades. Feb 16, 2019 - Explore Bobby's board "Gobekli Tepe" on Pinterest. [6], A number of radiocarbon dates have been published:[21], The Hd samples are from charcoal in the fill of the lowest levels of the site and date the end of the active phase of the occupation of Level III – the actual structures will be older. [5] It is one of several sites in the vicinity of Karaca Dağ, an area that geneticists suspect may have been the original source of at least some of our cultivated grains (see Einkorn). Pillar with the sculpture of a fox. [10][unreliable source?] Ian Hodder of Stanford University said, "Göbekli Tepe changes everything. Photo by Zhengan CC BY-SA 4.0. These include images of scorpions, lions, snakes, and vultures, a collection of symbols that are associated with religion, death and the afterlife in other ancient cultures of the Near East. But how did a hill not… Their most notable feature is the presence of T-shaped limestone pillars evenly set within thick interior walls composed of unworked stone. Vorläufiger Bericht zu den Grabungen am Göbekli Tepe und am Gürcütepe 1995–1999. [26], The plateau has been transformed by erosion and by quarrying, which took place not only in the Neolithic, but also in classical times. What makes Gobeklitepe unique in its class is the date it was built, which is roughly twelve thousand years ago, circa 10,000 BC. State of Research and New Data", "Israeli Archaeologists Find Hidden Pattern at 'World's Oldest Temple' Göbekli Tepe", "Geometry and Architectural Planning at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey", "New Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites and cult centres in the Urfa Region", "Cooperative Action of Hunter-Gatherers in the Early Neolithic Near East. [62], Future plans include construction of a museum and converting the environs into an archaeological park, in the hope that this will help preserve the site in the state in which it was discovered. ", "Göbekli Tepe: The World's First Temple? In all other directions, the ridge descends steeply into slopes and steep cliffs. Radiocarbon dating the first temples of mankind. [38] Several T-pillars up to 1.5 meters tall occupy the center of the rooms. [5] In 2017, discovery of human crania with incisions was reported, interpreted as providing evidence for a new form of Neolithic skull cult. [52], Göbekli Tepe is regarded by some as an archaeological discovery of great importance since it could profoundly change the understanding of a crucial stage in the development of human society. This platform corresponds to the complexes from Layer III at the tell. Each pillar has a height of up to 6 m (20 ft) and weighs up to 10 tons. Yet the site was constructed in 9,500 BC, thousands of years before the development of written language and agriculture, and well before human beings began to develop permanent settlements and cities. 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[29], Apart from the tell, there is an incised platform with two sockets that could have held pillars, and a surrounding flat bench. In: Chr. However, the specific function of the site at Göbekli Tepe remains a mystery. The team found no traces of human settlement around the site: no remains of houses, ovens or trenches for rubbish. The pictograms may represent commonly understood sacred symbols, as known from Neolithic cave paintings elsewhere. The magnificent megaliths and T-shaped pillars, some of which are up to 5.50 meters tall at Göbekli Tepe have long fascinated scientists and many consider the site to be home of the world's oldest temple. [28] It is unclear, on the other hand, how to classify three phallic depictions from the surface of the southern plateau. [19], The imposing stratigraphy of Göbekli Tepe attests to many centuries of activity, beginning at least as early as the Epipaleolithic period. Hamzan Tepe,[55] Karahan Tepe,[56] Harbetsuvan Tepesi,[57] Sefer Tepe,[58] and Taslı Tepe[47]) but little excavation has been conducted. They often are associated with the emergence of the Neolithic,[36] but the T-shaped pillars, the main feature of the older enclosures, also are present here, indicating that the buildings of Layer II continued to serve the same function in the culture, presumably as sanctuaries. Göbekli Tepe: The Worlds First Temple January 19, 2019 Julia Penelope Patheos Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! In: K. Schmidt: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt." It is possible that the construction of the temple at Göbekli Tepe was actually the precursor for human settlement and agriculture, not the other way around. According to a report in Daily Sabah , within the excavation site, the archaeologists found four stone stelae, three of which were des… [41] In addition to Byblos points (weapon heads, such as arrowheads etc.) Welcome to the presentation of the The World’s First Temple, Gobeklitepe … a pre-historic site, about 15 km away from the city of Sanliurfa, Southeastern Turkiye.

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