The reforms turned out to be largely cosmetic. It was formerly called Zaire (1971–1997). La population de la RDC a augmenté  de 39 millions en 1992 à 66 millions en 2009, malgré la guerre. These are SAPP (Southern African Power Pool), EAPP (East African Power Pool), CAPP (Central African Power Pool). Executive power went to the Belgian minister of colonial affairs, assisted by a Colonial Council (Conseil Colonial) (both located in Brussels). It is often simply referred to as the Protestant Church, since it covers most of the DRC Protestants. [26], Leopold had designs on what was to become the Congo as a colony. In February 2018, global asset management firm AllianceBernstein[156] defined the DRC as economically "the Saudi Arabia of the electric vehicle age," due to its cobalt resources, as essential to the lithium-ion batteries that drive electric vehicles.[157]. These conflicts have dramatically reduced national output and government revenue, increased external debt, and resulted in deaths of more than five million people from war and associated famine and disease. The same Congolese soukous, under the guidance of "le sapeur", Papa Wemba, have set the tone for a generation of young men always dressed up in expensive designer clothes. The generation and distribution of electricity are controlled by Société nationale d'électricité (SNEL), but only 15% of the country has access to electricity. Because of hunting and habitat destruction, the chimpanzee, the bonobo and the gorilla, each of whose populations once numbered in the millions, have now dwindled down to only about 200,000 gorillas, 100,000 chimpanzees and possibly only about 10,000 bonobos. The executive branch was vested in a 60-member cabinet, headed by a President and four vice presidents. dans Population Mis à jour le 25 mai 2020 The prevalence of FGM is estimated at about 5% of women. Also, the 148 Caritas network system has a total power of 6.31 kW. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), sometimes called Congo-Kinshasa with reference to its capital city, as opposed to Congo-Brazzaville, its northern neighbor, is a country in Central Africa. New variants of ancient beliefs have become widespread, led by US-inspired Pentecostal churches which have been in the forefront of witchcraft accusations, particularly against children and the elderly. Women and children are abused sexually and "abused in all possible manners". The lava poisoned the water of Lake Kivu, killing fish. Major tributaries include the Kasai, Sangha, Ubangi, Ruzizi, Aruwimi, and Lulonga. [19] Proceedings began on 15 January and armed riot police were deployed outside the Palace of Justice in Kinshasa. It is, by area, the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa (after Algeria), and the 11th-largest in the world. [45][46], Article 101 of the Constitution provides the basis for electing a National Assembly. [132], It is thought that due to the importance of cobalt for batteries for electric vehicles and stabilization of electric grids with large proportions of intermittent renewables in the electricity mix, the DRC could become an object of increased geopolitical competition. However, conversely conflict reduced deforestation for large scale mining due to security instability. Approximately 242 languages are spoken in the country, but only four have the status of national languages: Kituba ("Kikongo ya leta"), Lingala, Tshiluba, and Swahili. La plus grande ville du Congo est Kinshasa avec environ 12 millions d’habitants. As a result of its equatorial location, the DRC experiences high precipitation and has the highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world. Laurent Nkunda, a member of RCD-Goma, an RCD branch integrated to the army, defected along with troops loyal to him and formed the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), which began an armed rebellion against the government, starting the Kivu conflict. Data are also lacking on irregular immigrants, however given neighbouring countries' ethnic links to DRC nationals, irregular migration is assumed to be a significant phenomenon. to be again backed by Rwanda as a way to tackle the Hutu group, Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR). The DRC has Africa’s largest rainforest, which is under the threat of deforestation through mining operations, agriculture, infrastructure and wood fuel. Government spokesman Lambert Mende stated that "I do not think anyone has the right to tell the court what to do. After the UN and Western governments refused his requests for aid and Lumumba stated that he was open to any country, including the Soviet Union, for assistance in the crisis, the US and Belgium became wary and oversaw his removal from office by Kasa-Vubu on 5 September and ultimate execution by Belgian-led Katangese troops on 17 January 1961. "[34], In November 2017 CENI announced that elections will be held in December 2018,[35] after previously claiming earlier that month that elections could not be held until April 2019 due to the difficulties of registering voters in a country with underdeveloped infrastructure. Même si la RD du Congo a une grande population, la superficie lui donne une faible densité de population à 38 personnes personnes par kilomètre carré. In April 2011, through aid from Global Alliance for Vaccines, a new vaccine to prevent pneumococcal disease was introduced around Kinshasa. [108] However, in 2016 the Enough Project issued a report claiming that the Congo is run as a violent kleptocracy.[109]. 2017: 81 339 988 habitants About 600,000 Pygmies are the aboriginal people of the DR Congo. Instances of child labor and forced labor have been observed and reported in the U.S. Department of Labor's Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor in the DRC in 2013[111] and six goods produced by the country's mining industry appear on the department's December 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. [80], On 30 December the Democratic Republic of the Congo general election, 2018 was held. "[67][68] Western diplomatic sources speaking with Church officials reported that they identified Martin Fayulu as the winner with 60% of the votes.,[69][70] However, Rev. DR Congo has twice won the African Cup of Nations football tournament. The country is divided into twenty six provinces. After 1918, Belgium was rewarded for the participation of the Force Publique in the East African campaign with a League of Nations mandate over the previously German colony of Ruanda-Urundi. Matadi to Lubumbashi, 2,700 km (1,700 mi) by road). Then the river narrows and falls through a number of cataracts in deep canyons, collectively known as the Livingstone Falls, and runs past Boma into the Atlantic Ocean. DR Congo's major environmental issues include: Displaced refugees cause or are otherwise responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion and wildlife poaching. [215] Some attempts to combat species loss in countries such as the DRC are actions such as the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), specifically SDG 15 Life on Land, the primary goals of which is to increase reforestation and biodiversity and reduce species loss, desertification, and illegal poaching. DR Congo consistently has the lowest, or nearly the lowest, nominal GDP per capita in the world. Angolan, Zimbabwean, and Namibian militaries entered the hostilities on the side of the government. In 2018, 44.46 percent of the Democratic Republic of the Congo's total population lived in urban areas and cities. Colonial administrators ruled the territory and a dual legal system existed (a system of European courts and another one of indigenous courts, tribunaux indigènes). He says people believe the situation in the DRC is "stably bad" but in fact, it has become much, much worse. [56][57] Neighboring countries, particularly Rwanda, have been accused of arming rebels groups and using them as proxies to gain control of the resource-rich country, an accusation they deny. [citation needed]. Another list was published on 24 August, and the final one was published on 19 September. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is extremely rich in natural resources but has suffered from political instability, a lack of infrastructure, corruption, and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little widespread development. I am not under the impression (the AU) fully understands Congo's judicial process. [22] The country's name was restored by President Laurent-Désiré Kabila following the fall of Mobutu in 1997. The most numerous people are the Kongo, Luba, and Mongo. [60] On 5 November 2013, M23 declared an end to its insurgency. [27] Leopold's regime began various infrastructure projects, such as the construction of the railway that ran from the coast to the capital of Leopoldville (now Kinshasa), which took eight years to complete. All of these parks have been put on the World Heritage in Danger List. The tragic history of colonialism and war lead the Congolese people to settle in a place of complacency, accepting the culture that was forced upon them by Belgium. [13][65] The following day, representatives of the U.S., European Union, Swiss and Canadian missions in Kinshasa urged the DRC to restore Internet access. In 1971, he renamed the country Zaire. However, the smaller-scale economic activity from artisanal mining occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data. [166] Since the end of the civil war, the situation has improved tremendously, with the number of children enrolled in primary schools rising from 5.5 million in 2002 to 13.8 million in 2015, and the number of children enrolled in secondary schools rising from 2.8 million in 2007 to 4.6 million in 2015 according to UNESCO. [2], At the time of independence, the country was named the Republic of Congo-Léopoldville to distinguish it from its neighbour the Republic of the Congo-Brazzaville. It is separated from Tanzania by Lake Tanganyika in the east. [49] International aid, most often in the form of loans, enriched Mobutu while he allowed national infrastructure such as roads to deteriorate to as little as one-quarter of what had existed in 1960. General elections were held in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 30 December 2018, to determine a successor to President Joseph Kabila, as well as for the 500 seats of the National Assembly and the 715 elected seats of the 26 provincial assemblies. [21][111][112], Following the ruling, on January 20 the government restored Internet access in the country, ending a 20-day shutdown of the Internet that began on 31 December 2018. The final wave of the Bantu expansion was complete by the 10th century, followed by the establishment of the Bantu kingdoms, whose rising populations soon made possible intricate local, regional and foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in slaves, salt, iron and copper. Dans le cadre des annonces diffusées sur ce site Internet, des tiers pourront placer et lire des cookies sur le navigateur de nos visiteurs ou utiliser des balises Internet afin des collecter des informations. RTNC currently broadcasts in Lingala, French, and English. "M23 fighters patrolled the streets of Congo's main cities, firing on or arresting protesters or anyone else deemed to be a threat to the president," they said. The government – not the President – is responsible to the Parliament. The organisation also called for a vote recount. The Belgian Parliament forced Leopold II to set up an independent commission of inquiry. [225] A recent study in the DRC revealed that almost all of the animals are taken from the Congo each year, at 93% of all live animals there are in the forest are extracted for bush meat, whereas a sustainable rate would be 20%. BBC. By far the largest mines in the DRC are located in southern Katanga province (formerly Shaba), and are highly mechanized, with a capacity of several million tons per year of copper and cobalt ore, and refining capability for metal ore. C’est le deuxième plus grand pays d’Afrique en termes de taille et le 11e plus grand dans le monde. To put this in perspective, the road distance across the country in any direction is more than 2,500 km (1,600 mi) (e.g. The Congo River is the world's deepest river and the world's second-largest river by discharge. La deuxième guerre du Congo qui a débuté en 1998  a été le conflit le plus meurtrier sur la planète depuis la guerre civile chinoise. "[111] Government spokesman Lambert Mende stated afterwards "Felix Tshisekedi will become the fifth president of the republic. A relative explained how the government illicitly collected revenue: "Mobutu would ask one of us to go to the bank and take out a million. [98] However, the study indicated that poaching is still an existing problem, with researchers finding 380 snares and park guards continually being ambushed and killed by poachers.[98]. Les diverses productions sont en forte augmentation, notamment le cuivre,… There are also ethnic and cultural rivalries at play, as well as religious motives and the political crisis with postponed elections. To enforce the rubber quotas, the army, the Force Publique, was called in and made the practice of cutting off the limbs of the natives a matter of policy. Despite these pressures, the customs and cultures of the Congo have retained much of their individuality. It is the most populous French-speaking country, now before France. This trend was reversed after independence, when French became the sole language of education at all levels. [88][89], Four people—two police officers and two civilians—were killed in the western city of Kikwit during protests. [20] The river was known as Zaire during the 16th and 17th centuries; Congo seems to have replaced Zaire gradually in English usage during the 18th century, and Congo is the preferred English name in 19th-century literature, although references to Zaire as the name used by the natives (i.e. [72] On 9 January, the U.S. embassy in Kinshasa warned American citizens to leave the country due to possible election-related violence. [130] The largest use of cobalt is in superalloys, used to make jet engine parts. Another feature in Congo culture is its music. "[20][102], After the Constitutional Court ruling upholding Tshisekedi's victory on 20 January, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta and South Africa President Cyril Ramaphosa both sent their congratulations to Tshisekedi and recognized him as the next President. [9] He and his party, the People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy, supported the candidacy of Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary, the former Minister of the Interior,[10] who formally ran as an independent candidate. The lava passed the airport but ruined the runway, trapping several airplanes. [21][22], While Tshisekedi had won the election, parties aligned with Kabila secured a majority in the National Assembly and later in the Senate during the March 2019 Senate election. It ranked lower than Niger, despite a higher margin of improvement than the latter country over 2010's numbers. Une opportunité à saisir, Fonds des Nations unies pour la population », Rapport annuel 2015 du Quatrième programme RD Congo-UNFPA 2013-2017, avril 2016. Some of the African bands sing in Lingala, one of the main languages in the DRC. La population de la République du Congo dans les années précédentes. [126] In June 2014, Freedom from Torture published reported rape and sexual violence being used routinely by state officials in Congolese prisons as punishment for politically active women. The Belgian population of the colony increased from 1,928 in 1910 to nearly 89,000 in 1959. It also provided for the creation of a Conseil Superieur de la Defense (Superior Defence Council) which would declare states of siege or war and give advice on security sector reform, disarmament/demobilisation, and national defence policy. The syncretic sects often merge elements of Christianity with traditional beliefs and rituals and are not recognized by mainstream churches as part of Christianity. Their propagation was accelerated by the adoption of pastoralism and of Iron Age techniques. Emigrants from the DRC are above all long-term emigrants, the majority of whom live in Africa and to a lesser extent in Europe; 79.7% and 15.3% respectively, according to estimated 2000 data. The Céni announced the names of the winning candidates, as well as the total of votes on the national level, but no further info. [3] Parties supporting President Kabila won the majority of seats in the National Assembly. [146] A third of the DRC's diamonds are believed to be smuggled out of the country, making it difficult to quantify diamond production levels. In 2002 and 2003 Bemba intervened in the Central African Republic on behalf of its former president, Ange-Félix Patassé. [78] That same day, South African President Cyril Ramaphosa and other members of SADC urged the Congolese government to finalize the results quickly. [2] The provinces are subdivided into 145 territories and 32 cities. Dikembe Mutombo is one of the best African basketball players to ever play the game. Several Congolese players and players of Congolese descent—including strikers Romelu Lukaku, Yannick Bolasie, and Dieumerci Mbokani—have gained prominence in world football. Besides the capital Kinshasa, the two next largest cities, Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. Kasa-Vubu's death in April 1969 ensured that no person with First Republic credentials could challenge his rule. The provinces of Katanga, under Moïse Tshombe, and South Kasai attempted to secede. [151] In February 2007, 22% of the Nikanor Mining company was owned by the Gertner Family Trust and 14% by Dan Gertler. Islam has been present in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since the 18th century, when Arab traders from East Africa pushed into the interior for ivory- and slave-trading purposes. The 30% who live in urban areas have been the most open to Western influences. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1994. Mount Nyamuragira then erupted in 2006 and again in January 2010.[90]. This bill passed; however, it was gutted of the provision that would keep Kabila in power until a census took place. [104], Mobutu allegedly stole as much as US$4–5 billion while in office. [169], In 2012, it was estimated that about 1.1% of adults aged 15–49 were living with HIV/AIDS. Though recently outlawed, children have been subjected in these exorcisms to often-violent abuse at the hands of self-proclaimed prophets and priests. This page was last edited on 25 September 2020, at 21:55. The church owns and manages an extensive network of hospitals, schools, and clinics, as well as many diocesan economic enterprises, including farms, ranches, stores, and artisans' shops. [31] Opening up the Congo and its natural and mineral riches to the Belgian economy remained the main motive for colonial expansion – however, other priorities, such as healthcare and basic education, slowly gained in importance. Much concern has been raised about great ape extinction. La population du pays augmente actuellement de près de 3% par an, taux qui devrait se poursuivre au cours de la prochaine décennie. [19], The word Zaire is from a Portuguese adaptation of a Kikongo word nzere ("river"), a truncation of nzadi o nzere ("river swallowing rivers"). Kinshasa and Brazzaville are on opposite sides of the river at the Pool. [15] Barnabé Kikaya bin Karubi, an advisor to Joseph Kabila, had said that the President accepted the loss of the ruling party candidate Emmanuel Shadary. Votre adresse de messagerie ne sera pas publiée. Bismack Biyombo, Christian Eyenga, Emmanuel Mudiay and Serge Ibaka are others who gained significant international attention in basketball. DRC has the world's second-highest rate of infant mortality (after Chad). However, on 7 July 2017, CENI President Corneille Nangaa said it would not be possible to organize presidential elections by the end of the year. Internationally, the country is especially famous for its professional basketball NBA and football players. It is culturally accepted as the lingua franca facilitating communication among the many different ethnic groups of the Congo. Several international airlines service Kinshasa's international airport and a few also offer international flights to Lubumbashi International Airport. Kabila later requested that foreign military forces return to their own countries. They were believed[by whom?] Il est très difficile d’obtenir des données fiables sur la population de la RDC en raison du conflit. "UN: Two million children risk starvation in DRC. [41] An investigation by the Belgium's Parliament in 2001 found Belgium "morally responsible" for the murder of Lumumba, and the country has since officially apologised for its role in his death.[42]. The FARDC was established in 2003 after the end of the Second Congo War and integrated many former rebel groups into its ranks. 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