In taking this view, some Marxists accused him of bending too much to bourgeois nationalism, while others accused him of remaining too Russocentric by seeking to retain these nations within the Russian state.  The last elements of workers' control over industry were removed, with factory managers increasing their authority and receiving privileges and perks; Stalin defended wage disparity by pointing to Marx's argument that it was necessary during the lower stages of socialism.  In 1949, celebrations took place to mark Stalin's seventieth birthday (albeit not the correct year) at which Stalin attended an event in the Bolshoi Theatre alongside Marxist–Leninist leaders from across Europe and Asia.  Stalin also developed close relations with the trio at the heart of the secret police (first the Cheka and then its replacement, the State Political Directorate): Felix Dzerzhinsky, Genrikh Yagoda, and Vyacheslav Menzhinsky.  It was established that 1,710 Soviet towns and 70,000 villages had been destroyed. , Seeking improved international relations, in 1934 the Soviet Union secured membership of the League of Nations, of which it had previously been excluded.  Although he got into many fights, Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, and singing as a choirboy.  Under his rule, the average Soviet life expectancy grew due to improved living conditions, nutrition, and medical care; mortality rates also declined.  His motives in doing so have been much debated by historians. Publicly, the cause of death was given as appendicitis; Stalin also concealed the real cause of death from his children. Not the Last Word", Stalin Library (with all 13 volumes of Stalin's, Library of Congress: Revelations from the Russian Archives, Electronic archive of Stalin's letters and presentations, Joseph Stalin Newsreels // Net-Film Newsreels and Documentary Films Archive, Stalin Biography from Spartacus Educational, A List of Key Documentary Material on Stalin, Stalinka: The Digital Library of Staliniana, Electronic archive of Stalin’s letters and presentations, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, Polish–Soviet War, 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 18th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance, 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Aggravation of class struggle under socialism, National delimitation in the Soviet Union, Demolition of Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, 1906 Bolshevik raid on the Tsarevich Giorgi, Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Political Administration of the Ministry of Defence, General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, League of Russian Revolutionary Social Democracy Abroad, League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, 19th Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 18th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 17th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 16th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 15th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 14th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 13th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 12th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 11th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 10th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 9th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 8th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972, Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, List of Eastern Bloc agents in the United States, American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joseph_Stalin&oldid=996008447, 19th-century poets from Georgia (country), 20th-century poets from Georgia (country), Russian Social Democratic Labour Party members, Heads of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union members, Honorary Members of the USSR Academy of Sciences, People of World War II from Georgia (country), Recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, Recipients of the Order of Suvorov, 1st class, First convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Articles containing Georgian-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with Ukrainian-language sources (uk), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 01:16.  Stalin became part of an informal foursome leading the government, alongside Lenin, Trotsky, and Sverdlov; of these, Sverdlov was regularly absent and died in March 1919.  The Central Committee met on the day of his death, with Malenkov, Beria, and Khrushchev emerging as the party's key figures.  Kotkin observed that Stalin's ability to remain in power relied on him having a majority in the Politburo at all times. Stalin is too crude, and this defect which is entirely acceptable in our milieu and in relationships among us as communists, becomes unacceptable in the position of General Secretary.  A 2017 Pew Research survey had 57% of Georgians saying he played a positive role in history, compared to 18% of those expressing the same for Mikhail Gorbachev. These criticised Stalin's rude manners and excessive power, suggesting that Stalin should be removed from the position of general secretary. apparentées de l'économie nationale, de la culture, de l'administration.  In October 1961, Stalin's body was removed from the mausoleum and buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis next to the Kremlin walls, the location marked only by a simple bust. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin formalised these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies are known as Stalinism.  The German advance on Moscow was halted after two months of battle in increasingly harsh weather conditions.  Stalin in turn accused Kamenev and Zinoviev of reintroducing factionalism—and thus instability—into the party.  Stalin built up a retinue of his supporters in the Central Committee, while the Left Opposition were gradually removed from their positions of influence.  With the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in July 1937, the Soviet Union and China signed a non-aggression pact the following August. , As Britain and France seemed unwilling to commit to an alliance with the Soviet Union, Stalin saw a better deal with the Germans. As the majority of excess deaths under Stalin were not direct killings, the exact number of victims of Stalinism is difficult to calculate due to lack of consensus among scholars on which deaths can be attributed to the regime.  Stalin's colleagues described him as "Asiatic", and he told a Japanese journalist that "I am not a European man, but an Asian, a Russified Georgian".  Stalin also enjoyed watching films late at night at cinemas installed in the Kremlin and his dachas.  Stalin initiated confidential communications with Hitler in October 1933, shortly after the latter came to power in Germany.  In September 1934, he launched a commission to investigate false imprisonments; that same month he called for the execution of workers at the Stalin Metallurgical Factory accused of spying for Japan. « Mais les distributeurs ont catégoriquement rejeté cette proposition », a ajouté le ministre.  She gave birth to another of his children, Alexander, circa April 1917.  There, he co-edited a Georgian Marxist newspaper, Proletariatis Brdzola ("Proletarian Struggle"), with Philip Makharadze.  He called for the Georgian Marxist movement to split from its Russian counterpart, resulting in several RSDLP members accusing him of holding views contrary to the ethos of Marxist internationalism and calling for his expulsion from the party; he soon recanted his opinions.  Many religious buildings were demolished, most notably Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, destroyed in 1931 to make way for the (never completed) Palace of the Soviets. , Some positive sentiment can also be found elsewhere in the former Soviet Union.  State repression intensified after Kirov's death; Stalin instigated this, reflecting his prioritisation of security above other considerations.  In September 1952, several Kremlin doctors were arrested for allegedly plotting to kill senior politicians in what came to be known as the Doctors' Plot; the majority of the accused were Jewish. , That month, Stalin travelled to the port city of Batumi.  With this accomplished, Marxist governments now controlled a third of the world's land mass. Stalin had called for the Chinese Communists to ally themselves with Kuomintang (KMT) nationalists, viewing a Communist-Kuomintang alliance as the best bulwark against Japanese imperial expansionism.  Lenin joined Trotsky in criticizing him, and nobody spoke on his behalf at the conference.  During his exile, the RSDLP had split between Vladimir Lenin's "Bolsheviks" and Julius Martov's "Mensheviks".  On 28 September, Germany and the Soviet Union exchanged some of their newly conquered territories; Germany gained the linguistically Polish-dominated areas of Lublin Province and part of Warsaw Province while the Soviets gained Lithuania. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as global superpowers.  In early 2010 a new monument to Stalin was erected in Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine; in December unknown persons cut off its head and in 2011 it was destroyed in an explosion.  In 1934, his new Kuntsevo Dacha was built; 9 km from the Kremlin, it became his primary residence.  He warned of a "danger from the right", including in the Communist Party itself. About half were then imprisoned in labour camps. , The Soviet government sought to bring neighbouring states under its domination; in February 1921 it invaded the Menshevik-governed Georgia, while in April 1921, Stalin ordered the Red Army into Turkestan to reassert Russian state control.  Crowds were such that a crush killed about 100 people. 16:38.  He first developed the idea in December 1924 and elaborated upon in his writings of 1925–26.  He was quoted in Pravda on a daily basis and pictures of him remained pervasive on the walls of workplaces and homes.  He was hand-fed using a spoon, given various medicines and injections, and leeches were applied to him. Le regard sur le parcours d'un meurtrier psychopathe, Joseph Stalin. , Armed peasant uprisings against dekulakisation and collectivisation broke out in Ukraine, northern Caucasus, southern Russia, and central Asia, reaching their apex in March 1930; these were suppressed by the Red Army.  Although he established a Bolshevik stronghold in the mining town of Chiatura, Bolshevism remained a minority force in the Menshevik-dominated Georgian revolutionary scene. , In early 1928 Stalin travelled to Novosibirsk, where he alleged that kulaks were hoarding their grain and ordered that the kulaks be arrested and their grain confiscated, with Stalin bringing much of the area's grain back to Moscow with him in February.  He also read Capital, the 1867 book by German sociological theorist Karl Marx.  There, he emphasised what he regarded as leadership qualities necessary in the future and highlighted the weaknesses of various potential successors, particularly Molotov and Mikoyan.  However, according to Michael Ellman, the best modern estimate for the number of repression deaths during the Great Purge is 950,000–1.2 million, which includes executions, deaths in detention, or soon after their release.  In November 1932, after a group dinner in the Kremlin in which Stalin flirted with other women, Nadya shot herself.  Twenty six countries officially recognise it under the legal definition of genocide. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.  The Red Army withheld assistance to Polish resistance fighters battling the Germans in the Warsaw Uprising, with Stalin believing that any victorious Polish militants could interfere with his aspirations to dominate Poland through a future Marxist government.  On 17 September, the Red Army entered eastern Poland, officially to restore order amid the collapse of the Polish state. , While Stalin was in exile, Russia entered the First World War, and in October 1916 Stalin and other exiled Bolsheviks were conscripted into the Russian Army, leaving for Monastyrskoe. , Stalin publicly condemned anti-Semitism, although was repeatedly accused of it.  Along with other senior figures, he had a dacha at Zubalova, 35 km outside Moscow, although ceased using it after Nadya's 1932 suicide.  His writing style was similar, being characterised by its simplicity, clarity, and conciseness.  Aware that these countries had been pushed toward socialism through invasion rather than by proletarian revolution, Stalin referred to them not as "dictatorships of the proletariat" but as "people's democracies", suggesting that in these countries there was a pro-socialist alliance combining the proletariat, peasantry, and lower middle-class. Although concerns were expressed that adopting this new post on top of his others would overstretch his workload and give him too much power, Stalin was appointed to the position.  In April 1949, the Western powers established the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), an international military alliance of capitalist countries.  During the war, he proved his worth to the Central Committee, displaying decisiveness, determination, and a willingness to take on responsibility in conflict situations.  In February 1943, the German troops attacking Stalingrad surrendered.  Privately, Stalin sought to ensure that Poland would come fully under Soviet influence.  He also permitted a wider range of cultural expression, notably permitting formerly suppressed writers and artists like Anna Akhmatova and Dmitri Shostakovich to disperse their work more widely. There were mass expulsions from the party, with Stalin commanding foreign communist parties to also purge anti-Stalinist elements. Cette bureaucratisation a progressivement confisqué le pouvoir des mains des sovietâ¦  He was supported in this by Bukharin, who like Stalin believed that the Left Opposition's proposals would plunge the Soviet Union into instability.  Stalin's doctrine held that socialism could be completed in Russia but that its final victory there could not be guaranteed because of the threat from capitalist intervention.  According to Service, Stalin "regarded women as a resource for sexual gratification and domestic comfort". , Stalin joined a forbidden book club at the school; he was particularly influenced by Nikolay Chernyshevsky's 1863 pro-revolutionary novel What Is To Be Done?. Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori, then part of the Tiflis Governorate of the Russian Empire and home to a mix of Georgian, Armenian, Russian, and Jewish communities.  According to Kotkin, Stalin "built a personal dictatorship within the Bolshevik dictatorship". , In the wake of Lenin's death, various protagonists emerged in the struggle to become his successor: alongside Stalin was Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, Alexei Rykov, and Mikhail Tomsky. , Stalin left no anointed successor nor a framework within which a transfer of power could take place.  He attended the Fifth RSDLP Congress, held in London in May–June 1907.  Although he had been tasked with briefing the Bolshevik delegates of the Second Congress of Soviets about the developing situation, Stalin's role in the coup had not been publicly visible. This concept was intricately linked to factional struggles within the party, particularly against Trotsky.  He gambled that the others would not risk war, but they airlifted supplies into West Berlin until May 1949, when Stalin relented and ended the blockade.  He was born on 18 December [O.S.  At the same time, penal sanctions became more severe; at Stalin's instigation, in August 1932 a decree was introduced wherein the theft of even a handful of grain could be a capital offense.  Lenin and Stalin disagreed with this decision and later privately discussed how they could continue the robberies for the Bolshevik cause.  Yet Stalin's necessity for Soviet Union's economic development has been questioned, with it being argued that Stalin's policies from 1928 on may have only been a limiting factor.  Although officially voluntary, many peasants joined the collectives out of fear they would face the fate of the kulaks; others joined amid intimidation and violence from party loyalists.  As it wound down, Stalin sought to deflect responsibility from himself, blaming its "excesses" and "violations of law" on Yezhov. , Stalin initiated all key decisions during the Terror, personally directing many of its operations and taking an interest in their implementation.  Christian, Muslim, and Buddhist clergy faced persecution.  Some of the photos may be from earlier dates, but it is believed that this photo of Stalin was taken in 1893.  During the war, Stalin was more tolerant of the Russian Orthodox Church, allowing it to resume some of its activities and meeting with Patriarch Sergius in September 1943.  In April 1906, Stalin attended the RSDLP Fourth Congress in Stockholm; this was his first trip outside the Russian Empire.  Stalin faced several severe health problems: An 1884 smallpox infection left him with facial scars; and at age 12 he was seriously injured when he was hit by a phaeton, likely the cause of a lifelong disability in his left arm. Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's 1924 death.  He gave nicknames to his favourites, for instance referring to Yezhov as "my blackberry".  Stalin devoted himself to Marx's socio-political theory, Marxism, which was then on the rise in Georgia, one of various forms of socialism opposed to the empire's governing tsarist authorities. 1922 1926 1928 1930 1934 30 décembre 1922 Naissance de lâURSS 30 avril 1922 Staline secrétaire général du parti communiste 1928  By this point, the empire's secret police, the Okhrana, were aware of Stalin's activities in Tiflis' revolutionary milieu.  In November 1917, he signed the Decree on Nationality, according ethnic and national minorities living in Russia the right of secession and self-determination. En 1953, après la mort de Staline, il a été jugé coupable de représailles impunies ayant visé des personnes indiscernables et de complots antisoviétiques, puis fusillé. , Stalin strengthened and stabilised the Soviet Union; Service suggested that without him the country might have collapsed long before 1991.  He also believed that this proletarian state would need to introduce repressive measures against foreign and domestic "enemies" to ensure the full crushing of the propertied classes, and thus the class war would intensify with the advance of socialism.  Stalin would not acknowledge that his policies had contributed to the famine, the existence of which was kept secret from foreign observers.  In May 1939, Germany began negotiations with the Soviets, proposing that Eastern Europe be divided between the two powers. , Stalin faced problems in his family life.  Stalin was impatient for the UK and U.S. to open up a Western Front to take the pressure off of the East; they eventually did so in mid-1944.  According to Stalin's biographer Simon Sebag Montefiore, they became "minor Georgian classics" and were included in various anthologies of Georgian poetry over the coming years.  The first Moscow Trial took place in August 1936; Kamenev and Zinoviev were among those accused of plotting assassinations, found guilty in a show trial, and executed. , — Lenin's Testament, 4 January 1923; this was possibly composed by Krupskaya rather than Lenin himself. , According to Montefiore, in his early life Stalin "rarely seems to have been without a girlfriend".  Lenin twice asked Stalin to procure poison so that he could commit suicide, but Stalin never did so.  Religion retained an influence over much of the population; in the 1937 census, 57% of respondents identified as religious.  Stalin was pressed by his allies to enter the war and wanted to cement the Soviet Union's strategic position in Asia.  He sought to maintain Soviet neutrality, hoping that a German war against France and Britain would lead to Soviet dominance in Europe. Nom. According to Montefiore, theirs was "a true love match"; Volkogonov suggested that she was "probably the one human being he had really loved".  Through the Communist International, Stalin's government exerted a strong influence over Marxist parties elsewhere in the world; initially, Stalin left the running of the organisation largely to Bukharin.  Large numbers died during the journey. , After the October 1912 Duma elections, where six Bolsheviks and six Mensheviks were elected, Stalin wrote articles calling for reconciliation between the two Marxist factions, for which Lenin criticised him.  Derived from the Russian word for steel (stal), this has been translated as "Man of Steel"; Stalin may have intended it to imitate Lenin's pseudonym. For other uses, see, Leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1953, 1937 portrait used for state publicity purposes.  According to Montefiore, this was "Stalin's most famous work". , In 1928, Stalin declared that class war between the proletariat and their enemies would intensify as socialism developed.  Trotsky and other later Bolshevik opponents of Stalin used this as evidence that his role in the coup had been insignificant, although later historians reject this.  A number of authorised Stalin biographies were also published, although Stalin generally wanted to be portrayed as the embodiment of the Communist Party rather than have his life story explored.  In July, he arrived at the Siberian village of Narym, where he shared a room with fellow Bolshevik Yakov Sverdlov.  After Stalin's death, Khrushchev claimed that Stalin encouraged him to incite anti-Semitism in Ukraine, allegedly telling him that "the good workers at the factory should be given clubs so they can beat the hell out of those Jews.  In a celebratory mood, Stalin travelled by train to Petrograd in March.  Lenin returned to Petrograd and secured a majority in favour of a coup at a meeting of the Central Committee on 10 October. , In 1948, Stalin edited and rewrote sections of Falsifiers of History, published as a series of Pravda articles in February 1948 and then in book form. , Stalin attended the Potsdam Conference in July–August 1945, alongside his new British and U.S. counterparts, Prime Minister Clement Attlee and President Harry Truman.  One of them, Konstantin Kuzakov, later taught philosophy at the Leningrad Military Mechanical Institute, but never met his father.  Stalin was in the city when the February Revolution took place; uprisings broke out in Petrograd—as Saint Petersburg had been renamed—and Tsar Nicholas II abdicated to escape being violently overthrown.  He befriended two military figures, Kliment Voroshilov and Semyon Budyonny, who would form the nucleus of his military and political support base. He grew increasingly concerned that senior political and military figures might try to oust him; he prevented any of them from becoming powerful enough to rival him and had their apartments bugged with listening devices. , McDermott nevertheless cautioned against "over-simplistic stereotypes"—promoted in the fiction of writers like Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Vasily Grossman, and Anatoly Rybakov—that portrayed Stalin as an omnipotent and omnipresent tyrant who controlled every aspect of Soviet life through repression and totalitarianism. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported European anti-fascist movements during the 1930s, particularly in the Spanish Civil War. Il se fit renvoyer du séminaire à cause de ses idées révolutionnairesl'année suivante. Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[f] (born Ioseb Besarionis dzе Jughashvili, 18 December [O.S. I therefore propose to comrades that they should devise a means of removing him from this job and should appoint to this job someone else who is distinguished from comrade Stalin in all other respects only by the single superior aspect that he should be more tolerant, more polite and more attentive towards comrades, less capricious, etc.  The factionalist arguments continued, with Stalin threatening to resign in October and then December 1926 and again in December 1927.  He attracted a group of supporters through his classes in socialist theory and co-organised a secret workers' mass meeting for May Day 1900, at which he successfully encouraged many of the men to take strike action. , Besarion was a shoemaker and owned his own workshop; it was initially a financial success but later fell into decline, and the family found itself living in poverty. , As General Secretary, Stalin had had a free hand in making appointments to his own staff, implanting his loyalists throughout the party and administration. , Stalin's health was deteriorating, and heart problems forced a two-month vacation in the latter part of 1945.  He was sexually promiscuous, although rarely talked about his sex life.  By 1907, he grew his hair long and often wore a beard; for clothing, he often wore a traditional Georgian chokha or a red satin shirt with a grey coat and black fedora.