[459] In August 1939, the Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact with Germany, a non-aggression pact negotiated by Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. It is hard for me to reconcile the courtesy and consideration he showed me personally with the ghastly cruelty of his wholesale liquidations. [319] Bukharin and several other Central Committee members were angry that they had not been consulted about this measure, which they deemed rash. [903], Historians continue to debate whether or not the 1932–33 Ukrainian famine—known in Ukraine as the Holodomor—should be called a genocide. [260] Another disagreement came over the Georgian affair, with Lenin backing the Georgian Central Committee's desire for a Georgian Soviet Republic over Stalin's idea of a Transcaucasian one. [20] Although he got into many fights,[21] Stalin excelled academically,[22] displaying talent in painting and drama classes,[23] writing his own poetry,[24] and singing as a choirboy. [231] Lenin believed that the Polish proletariat would rise up to support the Russians against Józef Piłsudski's Polish government. [721] He also favoured classical forms in the visual arts, disliking avant-garde styles like cubism and futurism. [543] After receiving a complaint about this from Yugoslav communist Milovan Djilas, Stalin asked how after experiencing the traumas of war a soldier could "react normally? [638] He took increasingly long holidays; in 1950 and again in 1951 he spent almost five months vacationing at his Abkhazian dacha. [895] However, according to Michael Ellman, the best modern estimate for the number of repression deaths during the Great Purge is 950,000–1.2 million, which includes executions, deaths in detention, or soon after their release. [886], Leninists remain divided in their views on Stalin; some view him as Lenin's authentic successor, while others believe he betrayed Lenin's ideas by deviating from them. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported European anti-fascist movements during the 1930s, particularly in the Spanish Civil War. [705], Stalinism was a development of Leninism,[706] and while Stalin avoided using the term "Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism", he allowed others to do so. [271] To bolster his image as a devoted Leninist, Stalin gave nine lectures at Sverdlov University on the "Foundations of Leninism", later published in book form. [701] Stalin adopted the Leninist view on the need for a revolutionary vanguard who could lead the proletariat rather than being led by them. [834] He was sexually promiscuous, although rarely talked about his sex life. [297] In October 1927, Zinoviev and Trotsky were removed from the Central Committee;[298] the latter was exiled to Kazakhstan and later deported from the country in 1929. [392] The Soviet government believed that food supplies should be prioritized for the urban workforce;[393] for Stalin, the fate of Soviet industrialisation was far more important than the lives of the peasantry. [400] By 1938, Stalin's inner circle had gained a degree of stability, containing the personalities who would remain there until Stalin's death. [908] These have articulated the view that—while Stalin's policies contributed significantly to the high mortality rate—there is no evidence that Stalin or the Soviet government consciously engineered the famine. [415] In September 1934, he launched a commission to investigate false imprisonments; that same month he called for the execution of workers at the Stalin Metallurgical Factory accused of spying for Japan. [407] In turn, the anti-communist governments of Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936. [285] While Lenin had been ill Stalin had forged an anti-Trotsky alliance with Kamenev and Zinoviev. Si sa date de naissance reconnue est le 21 décembre 1879, on retient également le 18 décembre 1878, jour indiqué sur son extrait de naissance. [663] That month featured a surge in arrests for "anti-Soviet agitation" as those celebrating Stalin's death came to police attention. [566] He ensured that returning Soviet prisoners of war went through "filtration" camps as they arrived in the Soviet Union, in which 2,775,700 were interrogated to determine if they were traitors. [508] While Red Army generals saw evidence that Hitler would shift efforts south, Stalin considered this to be a flanking move in a renewed effort to take Moscow. [652] Svetlana and Vasily were called to the dacha on 2 March; the latter was drunk and angrily shouted at the doctors, resulting in him being sent home. [381] The second five-year plan had its production quotas reduced from that of the first, with the main emphasis now being on improving living conditions. Après la révolution d'Octobre qui porte les bolcheviks au pouvoir en Russie, Lénine forme son gouvernement, le Sovnarkom, dont les membres prennent le titre de commissaires du peuple. [676] According to Montefiore, Stalin's embrace of the Russian nation was pragmatic, as the Russians were the core of the population of the USSR; it was not a rejection of his Georgian origins. [455], As Britain and France seemed unwilling to commit to an alliance with the Soviet Union, Stalin saw a better deal with the Germans. Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. [715] According to Khlevniuk, Stalin reconciled Marxism with great-power imperialism and therefore expansion of the empire makes him a worthy to the Russian tsars. [227] Along the Southwest Front, he became determined to conquer Lviv; in focusing on this goal he disobeyed orders in early August to transfer his troops to assist Mikhail Tukhachevsky's forces that were attacking Warsaw. [208] He befriended two military figures, Kliment Voroshilov and Semyon Budyonny, who would form the nucleus of his military and political support base. [141] Derived from the Russian word for steel (stal),[142] this has been translated as "Man of Steel";[143] Stalin may have intended it to imitate Lenin's pseudonym. [881], McDermott nevertheless cautioned against "over-simplistic stereotypes"—promoted in the fiction of writers like Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Vasily Grossman, and Anatoly Rybakov—that portrayed Stalin as an omnipotent and omnipresent tyrant who controlled every aspect of Soviet life through repression and totalitarianism. [412] Stalin aided the Chinese as the KMT and the Communists had suspended their civil war and formed the desired United Front. [574] Recognising the need for drastic steps to be taken to combat inflation and promote economic regeneration, in December 1947 Stalin's government devalued the ruble and abolished the ration-book system. Joseph Vissarionovitch Djougachvili Staline :né en 1879, d’une famille très modeste, il rallie en 1917 le parti bolchevique – le futur PCUS. [681] Volkogonov believed that Stalin's Marxism was shaped by his "dogmatic turn of mind", suggesting that this had been instilled in the Soviet leader during his education in religious institutions. Whereas Lenin believed that all countries across Europe and Asia would readily unite as a single state following proletariat revolution, Stalin argued that national pride would prevent this, and that different socialist states would have to be formed; in his view, a country like Germany would not readily submit to being part of a Russian-dominated federal state. [932] A number of Georgians resent criticism of Stalin, the most famous figure from their nation's modern history;[925] a 2013 survey by Tbilisi University found 45% of Georgians expressing "a positive attitude" to him. [198] Socialist revolutionaries accused Stalin's talk of federalism and national self-determination as a front for Sovnarkom's centralising and imperialist policies. Livre terrifiant que tous ceux qui louent Staline (toujours en Georgie où un ministre a comparé Staline (sa mere, dont j'ai vu la tombe grandiose, travaillait pour mon arrière grand mere mingrelienne qui a payé les études du fiston au séminaire) à mon arrière grand oncle.Napoleon. [641] In November, the Slánský trial took place in Czechoslovakia as 13 senior Communist Party figures, 11 of them Jewish, were accused and convicted of being part of a vast Zionist-American conspiracy to subvert Eastern Bloc governments. [527] There, Stalin and Roosevelt got on well, with both desiring the post-war dismantling of the British Empire. [470] The Soviets sought to forestall dissent in these new East European territories with mass repressions. He initially refused, leading to an international crisis in 1946, but one year later Stalin finally relented and moved the Soviet troops out. [467] Embarrassed by their inability to defeat the Finns, the Soviets signed an interim peace treaty, in which they received territorial concessions from Finland. [679] Stalin believed in the need to adapt Marxism to changing circumstances; in 1917, he declared that "there is dogmatic Marxism and there is creative Marxism. [931], The only part of the former Soviet Union where admiration for Stalin has remained consistently widespread is Georgia, although Georgian attitude has been very divided. By January 1953, three percent of the Soviet population was imprisoned or in internal exile, with 2.8 million in "special settlements" in isolated areas and another 2.5 million in camps, penal colonies, and prisons. [522] There remained mutual suspicions between Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who were together known as the "Big Three". C'est la bureaucratisation de l'appareil d'Etat soviétique et du parti bolchévik qui a constitué la base sociale de cette régression. [77] He publicly lambasted the "pogroms against Jews and Armenians" as being part of Tsar Nicholas II's attempts to "buttress his despicable throne". Stalin, Trotsky, Sverdlov, and Lenin lived at the Kremlin. [130], After the October 1912 Duma elections, where six Bolsheviks and six Mensheviks were elected, Stalin wrote articles calling for reconciliation between the two Marxist factions, for which Lenin criticised him. [440] His motives in doing so have been much debated by historians. [488], Going against the advice of Zhukov and other generals, Stalin emphasised attack over defence. [801] He was a voracious reader, with a library of over 20,000 books. [625] The North Korean Army launched the Korean War by invading the south in June 1950, making swift gains and capturing Seoul. By 1932, about 62% of households involved in agriculture were part of collectives, and by 1936 this had risen to 90%. [188] He co-signed Lenin's decrees shutting down hostile newspapers,[189] and along with Sverdlov, he chaired the sessions of the committee drafting a constitution for the new Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. A partir de 1898… [76] Stalin was in Baku in February when ethnic violence broke out between Armenians and Azeris; at least 2,000 were killed. [356] Conservative social policies were promoted to enhance social discipline and boost population growth; this included a focus on strong family units and motherhood, the re-criminalisation of homosexuality, restrictions placed on abortion and divorce, and the abolition of the Zhenotdel women's department. [365] Religion retained an influence over much of the population; in the 1937 census, 57% of respondents identified as religious. Le ministre chargé de la politique extérieure prend le titre de commissaire du peuple aux Affaires étrangères. [556], After the war, Stalin was—according to Service—at the "apex of his career". [938], "Stalin" redirects here. de plus en plus nombreux mais leur niveau de vie est faible. [215] He returned to Moscow between January and March 1919,[216] before being assigned to the Western Front at Petrograd. [353] Aware that the ethnic Russian majority may have concerns about being ruled by a Georgian,[354] he promoted ethnic Russians throughout the state hierarchy and made the Russian language compulsory throughout schools and offices, albeit to be used in tandem with local languages in areas with non-Russian majorities. [182] Stalin became part of an informal foursome leading the government, alongside Lenin, Trotsky, and Sverdlov;[183] of these, Sverdlov was regularly absent and died in March 1919. [620] Privately, Stalin revealed that he had underestimated the Chinese Communists and their ability to win the civil war, instead encouraging them to make another peace with the KMT. [669] Reforms to the Soviet system were immediately implemented. [724] Stalin's colleagues described him as "Asiatic", and he told a Japanese journalist that "I am not a European man, but an Asian, a Russified Georgian". [849] Conversely, Stalin had an affectionate relationship with Svetlana during her childhood,[850] and was also very fond of Artyom. 00447, listing 268,950 people for arrest, of whom 75,950 were executed. [273] Embarrassed by its contents, Stalin offered his resignation as General Secretary; this act of humility saved him and he was retained in the position. [474] After the Tripartite Pact was signed by Axis Powers Germany, Japan, and Italy in October 1940, Stalin proposed that the USSR also join the Axis alliance. [366], Throughout the 1920s and beyond, Stalin placed a high priority on foreign policy. [84], In November 1905, the Georgian Bolsheviks elected Stalin as one of their delegates to a Bolshevik conference in Saint Petersburg. [379] It therefore emphasised the expansion of housing space and the production of consumer goods. [617] Monarchy was abolished in Bulgaria and Romania. [16] Ekaterine and Stalin left the home by 1883 and began a wandering life, moving through nine different rented rooms over the next decade. [309], The Soviet Union lagged behind the industrial development of Western countries,[311] and there had been a shortfall of grain; 1927 produced only 70% of grain produced in 1926. [775] He acknowledged that he could be rude and insulting,[776] although rarely raised his voice in anger;[777] as his health deteriorated in later life he became increasingly unpredictable and bad tempered. [370] After Bukharin's departure, Stalin placed the Communist International under the administration of Dmitry Manuilsky and Osip Piatnitsky. [564], Despite his strengthened international position, Stalin was cautious about internal dissent and desire for change among the population. [864], Stalin strengthened and stabilised the Soviet Union;[865] Service suggested that without him the country might have collapsed long before 1991. [31][32] According to Stalin's biographer Simon Sebag Montefiore, they became "minor Georgian classics"[33] and were included in various anthologies of Georgian poetry over the coming years. Lenin called for establishment of a new federation named the "Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia", reflecting his desire for expansion across the two continents and insisted that the Russian state should join this union on equal terms with the other Soviet states. [733] Throughout his life, he used various nicknames and pseudonyms, including "Koba", "Soselo", and "Ivanov",[734] adopting "Stalin" in 1912; it was based on the Russian word for "steel" and has often been translated as "Man of Steel". [778] Despite his tough-talking attitude, he could be very charming;[779] when relaxed, he cracked jokes and mimicked others. Cette bureaucratisation a progressivement confisqué le pouvoir des mains des soviet… [865] In under three decades, Stalin transformed the Soviet Union into a major industrial world power,[866] one which could "claim impressive achievements" in terms of urbanisation, military strength, education, and Soviet pride. [190], Because of the ongoing First World War, in which Russia was fighting the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary, Lenin's government relocated from Petrograd to Moscow in March 1918. Either we do this or we'll be crushed. Others, who did not know him personally, see only the tyrant in Stalin. Stalin allowed the Russian Orthodox Church to retain the churches it had opened during the war. Rédacteur du journal La Pravda – la « Vérité » – , il devient commissaire du Peuple aux Nationalités en 1917, puis secrétaire général du PCUS en 1922. [561] In 1946, the state published Stalin's Collected Works. [119] Still in Vologda, Stalin agreed, remaining a Central Committee member for the rest of his life. [257] Lenin twice asked Stalin to procure poison so that he could commit suicide, but Stalin never did so. Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement, which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism. Les années précédentes, son Reich était en expansion constante : l'Anschluss de l'Autriche (mars 1938), l'annexion des Sudètes en Tchécoslovaquie (septembre 1938), l'occupation des restes de la Tchécoslovaquie (mars 1939). [216] During the war, he proved his worth to the Central Committee, displaying decisiveness, determination, and a willingness to take on responsibility in conflict situations. [244] Stalin opposed the idea of separate Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani autonomous republics, arguing that these would likely oppress ethnic minorities within their respective territories; instead he called for a Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. As the majority of excess deaths under Stalin were not direct killings, the exact number of victims of Stalinism is difficult to calculate due to lack of consensus among scholars on which deaths can be attributed to the regime. [708] He first developed the idea in December 1924 and elaborated upon in his writings of 1925–26. [818] People who knew him, such as Khrushchev, suggested he long harbored negative sentiments toward Jews,[819] and anti-Semitic trends in his policies were further fueled by Stalin's struggle against Trotsky. [426] [645] The amount of written material that he produced also declined. [420] In 1935, he ordered the NKVD to expel suspected counter-revolutionaries from urban areas;[382] in early 1935, over 11,000 were expelled from Leningrad. [378] Social unrest, previously restricted largely to the countryside, was increasingly evident in urban areas, prompting Stalin to ease on some of his economic policies in 1932. Directed by Agnieszka Holland. [454] Between 1940 and 1941 he also purged the military, leaving it with a severe shortage of trained officers when war broke out. Le ministre chargé de la politique extérieure prend le titre de commissaire du peuple aux Affaires étrangères. [765] He was a hard worker,[766] and displayed a keen desire to learn;[767] when in power, he scrutinised many details of Soviet life, from film scripts to architectural plans and military hardware. This attack proved unsuccessful. [283] Stalin saw Trotsky—whom he personally despised[284]—as the main obstacle to his dominance within the party. [684], As a Marxist and an extreme anti-capitalist, Stalin believed in an inevitable "class war" between the world's proletariat and bourgeoise. The US also offered financial assistance as part of the Marshall Plan on the condition that they opened their markets to trade, aware that the Soviets would never agree. In 1929, his son Yakov unsuccessfully attempted suicide; his failure earned Stalin's contempt. [505] Comintern was dissolved in 1943,[506] and Stalin encouraged foreign Marxist–Leninist parties to emphasise nationalism over internationalism to broaden their domestic appeal. [742] He was a lifelong smoker, who smoked both a pipe and cigarettes. [502] The Internationale was dropped as the country's national anthem, to be replaced with a more patriotic song. [64] There, he lived in a two-room peasant's house, sleeping in the building's larder. [94] By that year—according to the historian Robert Service—Stalin had established himself as "Georgia's leading Bolshevik". [511] In December 1942, he placed Konstantin Rokossovski in charge of holding the city. During his years in power, he served as both General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union (1941–1953). [618] Across Eastern Europe, the Soviet model was enforced, with a termination of political pluralism, agricultural collectivisation, and investment in heavy industry. [717], Ethnically Georgian,[719] Stalin grew up speaking the Georgian language,[720] and did not begin learning Russian until the age of eight or nine. [394] Grain exports, which were a major means of Soviet payment for machinery, declined heavily. Il se fit renvoyer du séminaire à cause de ses idées révolutionnairesl'année suivante. [651] He had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage. Repeatedly arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. Après la mort de Lénine en 1924, Staline qui est le secrétaire du Parti communiste depuis avril 1922 s’empare du pouvoir avec l’aide de la police politique la « Tcheka » et exile Trotski qui est son principal rival. [464] The two states continued trading, undermining the British blockade of Germany. [222] Although Stalin did not share Lenin's belief that Europe's proletariat were on the verge of revolution, he acknowledged that as long as it stood alone, Soviet Russia remained vulnerable. [619] With this accomplished, Marxist governments now controlled a third of the world's land mass. [396] In 1938, The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), colloquially known as the Short Course, was released;[397] Conquest later referred to it as the "central text of Stalinism". [892] Socialist writers like Volkogonov have acknowledged that Stalin's actions damaged "the enormous appeal of socialism generated by the October Revolution". [181] Stalin backed Lenin's decision not to form a coalition with the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionary Party, although they did form a coalition government with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries. "[591] He personally took a keen interest in the development of the weapon.