Il donne une brève définition de chaque concept et de ses relations. [citation needed]. After the expulsion of the kings and the establishment of the Republic, all the powers that had belonged to the kings were transferred to two offices: that of the consuls and the Rex Sacrorum. Google Play, Android et le logo Google Play sont des marques de Google Inc. Hey! Alföldy, p. 179. 422, 426, Gallivan, "Reign of Claudius", pp. J.-C. [n 1] Dans l'Antiquité, cette liste des consuls est appelée Fastes consulaires et sert de calendrier de référence. Caesar M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus Augustus, Imp. If he was P. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus, he would be identical with an officer who fought the Volscians in 446 BC under the consuls Quinctius and Furius; if he was Ser. (Dio 36.4.1; Broughton, P. Cornelius Sulla and P. Antonius Paetus were elected consuls, but both were convicted of bribery under the Calpurnian Law. Caesar Marcus Aurelius Carinus Augustus, Imp. Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus, Imp. Initially, the consuls held vast executive and judicial power. Thus, in 443 BC, the responsibility to conduct the census was taken from the consuls and given to the censors. Fabius Cilo was possibly a colleague of Silius Messalla. So Diodorus Siculus (XIII.7.1); Livy has here Sp. 3rd century BC. The order of these consuls was reversed in the Fasti Capitolini after Augustus and other patricians falsified the list in order to enhance the prestige of their ancestors (by placing them as consuls. [16] Consequently, holding the ordinary consulship was a great honor and the office was the major symbol of the still relatively republican constitution. In order to allow the consuls greater authority in executing laws, the consuls had the right of summons and arrest, which was limited only by the right of appeal from their judgment. If a consul died during his term (not uncommon when consuls were in the forefront of battle) or was removed from office, another would be elected by the Comitia Centuriata to serve the remainder of the term as consul suffectus ("suffect consul"). Eck, "Diplome, Konsuln und Statthalter: Fortschritte und Problem der kaiserlichen Prosopographie". Because there could only be two consuls at once, the emperors frequently appointed several sets of suffecti sequentially in the course of a year; holding the consulship for an entire year became a special honour. the de jure supreme magistrate of the Roman state. The consulship, bereft of any real power, continued to be a great honor, but the celebrations attending it – above all the chariot races – had come to involve considerable expense, which only a few citizens could afford, to the extent that part of the expense had to be covered by the state. Caesar Marcus Aurelius Claudius Augustus, Imp. Broughton, vol. [1] The consulship was often bestowed as a political favour, or a reward for faithful service. Consul (abbrev. Ceci est une carte mentale en ligne géant qui sert de base pour les schémas conceptuels. Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus, Caius Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar, Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar, Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus, Imp. Giuseppe Camodeca, "I consoli del 43 e gli Antistii Veteres d'età claudia dalla riedizione delle Tabulae Herculanenses", See Camodeca, "Novità sui fasti consolari, Giuseppe Camodeca argues that Gallivan mistakenly followed an error by the writer of. R. M. Ogilvie opens his article on the line containing the consuls for this year with the words "One of the outstanding puzzles of the Capitoline Fasti." I, pp. Liste des consuls ordinaires romains de la mort de Commode, en 192 ap. Election declared invalid. Voici la définition, l'explication, la description ou la signification de chaque importantes sur lesquelles vous avez besoin d'informations, et une liste de leurs concepts connexes comme un glossaire. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus, he would be identical with the consul of 461 BC; in either case, this Decemvir was one of three ambassadors sent to Greece to study their laws. Peter Weiss has argued, based on more recently recovered evidence, that Scapula could have been suffect consul in September–October 99, or even later. However, to prevent abuse of the kingly power, the imperium was shared by two consuls, each of whom could veto the other's actions. L’espace privé de ce site est ouvert aux [24] While the dictator held office, the imperium of the consuls was subordinate to the dictator. Before any foreign ambassadors reached the Senate, they met with the consuls. The most commonly chosen province for the proconsulship was Cisalpine Gaul. Rome was a warlike society, and very seldom did not wage war. Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 181 to 235 are taken from Paul M. M. Leunissen. Jh.n.Chr. ", "The Solonian Constitution and a Consul of A.D. 149", Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, "Eine neue Bürgerrechtskonstitution für die Truppen von Pannonia inferior aus dem Jahr 162 mit einem neuen Konsulnpaar", "Diplom für einen Fußsoldaten aus Koptos vom 23. In order to avoid unnecessary conflicts, only one consul would actually perform the office's duties every month and could act without direct interference. Caesar L. Aurelius Commodus Augustus, Imp. In place of patrician consuls, the people could elect a number of military tribunes, who might be either patrician or plebeian. Contexte consuls républicains. Their term in office was short (one year); their duties were pre-decided by the Senate; and they could not stand again for election immediately after the end of their office. [16] As time progressed, second consulates, usually ordinary, became far more common than had been the case during the first two centuries, while the first consulship was usually a suffect consulate. [9] In Cicero’s words: in agris erant tum senatores, id est senes:[10] ‘In those days senators—that is, seniors—would live on their farms’. This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. Très bon texte sur Antoine de Saint-Exupery. [25] The date the consuls took office varied: from 222 BC to 153 BC they took office 15 March, and from 153 BC onwards it was on 1 January. Gallivan ("Fasti for A. D. 70-96", p. 211) argues that this suffect could be placed either before 87 or in 93; 93 is now complete. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Consuls romains du Haut-Empire, Liste des consuls de l'Empire romain, Liste des consuls romains du haut-empire. This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period. The suffects for this year are taken from Peter Weiß, "Konstitutionen eines toten Kaisers: Militärdiplome von Commodus aus dem Jahr 193 n. Il s’agit d’une oligarchie gouvernée par le populus qui n’est à l’époque que l’ensemble des patriciens (et non la totalité de la population au sens actuel du terme). À Rome dans l'Antiquité, le censeur est un haut magistrat. [16], One of the reforms of Constantine I (r. 306–337) was to assign one of the consuls to the city of Rome, and the other to Constantinople. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Augustus, Imp. Caesar M. Julius Severus Philippus Augustus, Imp. [202] When used thereafter, the office was with few exceptions used as part of the imperial title. This distinction continued until the 4th century AD, when the Empire was divided into a Western Roman Empire and an Eastern Roman Empire: the consuls who were appointed by the court in the Western Empire, which was sometimes at Rome, are commonly identified as the "Western consul", and those appointed by the court in the Eastern, usually Constantinople, the "Eastern consul". (Broughton, Livy (5.29.2) omits all reference to Valerius and Cornelius, presenting L. Lucretius Tricipinus Flavus and Ser. This is a list of Roman consuls, individuals who were either elected or nominated to the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, or a high office of the Empire, but for whom an exact date of when they served in office is absent. Names and dates for 55 and 56 taken from Giuseppe Camodeca, Camodeca allocates January–April to Vetus, while. (Leunissen. Livy apparently gives the initial order throughout most of his work, but seems to have followed the new "official" order in his later books; perhaps he was influenced by the imperial propaganda. The list of consuls for this state is incomplete, drawn from inscriptions and coins. The second function taken from the consulship was their judicial power. This becomes the year 1 ab urbe condita, or AUC. Chr. There were two consuls in order to create a check on the power of any individual. Outside the walls of Rome, the powers of the consuls were far more extensive in their role as commanders-in-chief of all Roman legions. The consul would introduce ambassadors to the Senate, and they alone carried on the negotiations between the Senate and foreign states. La république (Du latin res publica, « la chose publique ») est fondée en -509. Les rites d'accession au pouvoir des consuls romains: une part intégrante de leur entrée en charge [4] However, in four years at the end of the 4th century BC, dictators are said to have continued in office in the year following their nomination, in place of consuls. [3] In Greek, the title was originally rendered as στρατηγὸς ὕπατος, strategos hypatos ("the supreme general"), and later simply as ὕπατος. Though still officially the highest office of the state, with the emperor's superior imperium they were merely a symbol of Rome's republican heritage. Qui se rapporte aux attributions des consuls, à un consulat en pays étranger. Caesar M. Aurelius Numerianus Augustus, Imp. Chr. Each consul was accompanied in every public appearance by twelve lictors, who displayed the magnificence of the office and served as his bodyguards. [26] The practice of dating years ab urbe condita (from the supposed foundation date of Rome) was less frequently used. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, L. Vibullius Hipparchus Ti. Obtenir des informations en XML pour filtrer le meilleur contenu. Renseignements suite à un email de description de votre projet. Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 70–96 are taken from Paul Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70–96", Gallivan dated M. Ulpius Traianus the Elder to 70 based on his arrangement of the fragments of tablet E of the, The suffect consuls for September–October are attested in 80 by the, This pair of suffects added from Camodeca, "Novità sui fasti consolari", pp. [19] In the late 9th century, Emperor Leo the Wise (r. 886–912) finally abolished consular dating with Novel 94. Although his imperium was the same as his predecessor's, he was termed consul suffectus, in order to distinguish him from the consul ordinarius whom he replaced; but the eponymous magistrates for each year were normally the consules ordinarii. While the Rex Sacrorum inherited the kings’ position as high priest of the state, the consuls were given the civil and military responsibilities (imperium). [13] However, the high regard placed upon the ordinary consulate remained intact, as it was one of the few offices that one could share with the emperor, and during this period it was filled mostly by patricians or by individuals who had consular ancestors. Caesar Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus, Imp. The last consuls appointed represented only the Eastern Empire, until finally the title became the sole province of the Emperor, who might or might not assume it upon taking office. 206f, 219, Gallivan, "Fasti for A. D. 70-96", pp. 209, 219) dated this pair of suffects to "79-80"; this is the only open office in those two years, so he is placed here. There were also three other restrictions on consular power. Although these lists account for the entire period of the Republic, and most of Imperial times, there are discrepancies due to gaps and disagreements between different sources. J.-C. un des deux censeurs doit être un plébéien. 201, 219, Gallivan, "Fasti for A. D. 70-96", p. 204, Gallivan, "Fasti for A. D. 70-96", pp. Unionpédia est une carte conceptuelle ou réseau sémantique organisée comme une encyclopédie ou un dictionnaire. After the expiration of their offices, the ex-consuls (proconsuls) went on to govern one of the provinces that were administered by the Senate. Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 136 and 137 are taken from Cooley. By that time, the Greek titles for consul and ex-consul, "hypatos" and "apo hypaton", had been transformed to relatively lowly honorary dignities.[20]. [11] Emperors frequently appointed themselves, or their protégés or relatives, consuls, even without regard to the age requirements. Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus, Imp. Les conditions dans lesquelles s’effectuent la transition vers le nouveau régime expliquent en grande part certains réflexes politiques de la Rome antique, comme la crainte (quasi phobique) de la tyrannie. [1][2] As the office lost much of its executive authority, and the number of consuls appointed for short and often irregular periods increased, surviving lists from Imperial times are often incomplete, and have been reconstructed from many sources, not always with much certainty. J-C., certains historiens pensent qu’ils furent d’abord appelés les préteurs (praetores) avant de changer pour consules (consuls) à une date mal définie (promulgation de la Loi des XII Tables). In the next month, the consuls would switch roles with one another. In times of crisis, when Rome's territory was in immediate danger, a dictator was appointed by the consuls for a period of no more than six months, after the proposition of the Senate.